Know and understand the types of communication


Hello readers! We all know that student life demands a lot, communicating in the right way is one such thing. If you are not able to convey your part, than it is very difficult to achieve the best results. So, here I am presenting you the types of communication so that you can know them and effectively use them in your day-to-day routine as well.

When it comes to types of communication, the one which needs utmost attention is its written form. All your assignments, tests and examination papers are examples of the same. In a student’s case written communication also depends upon how well he or she knows the subject or a topic about which they are supposed to write.

It is better to stay versed with all such things. If you feel you need help in this aspect, you can take assignment help. You will surely get all the needed information with the right insight to your work and apt knowledge at the same time. Having the right knowledge is always necessary.

Now, let’s get into the overview and know what all you are going to read in this blog post:

-What is communication?

-Process of communication

-Types of communication

-7C’s of communication

-Why effective communication is necessary?

-Barriers to effective communication

What is communication?



Before moving to the types of communication, lets know what communication is. The communication is a two-way process wherein the message in the form of ideas, thoughts, feelings, opinions is transmitted between two or more persons with the intent of creating a shared understanding.

Simply, an act of conveying intended information and understanding from one person to another is called as communication. The term communication is derived from the Latin word “Communis” which means to share. Effective communication is when the message conveyed by the sender is understood by the receiver in exactly the same way as it was intended.

Communication Process


Yes, this is the time to know types of communication, but how can we know them better if we don’t understand the process as a whole? This is why I am going to discuss communication as a process in brief. Here it goes:

Stage 1. Sender

sender or the communicator is the person who initiates the conversation and has conceptualise the idea that he intends to convey it to others.

Stage 2. Encoding

The sender begins with the encoding process wherein he uses certain words or non-verbal methods such as symbols, signs, body gestures, etc. to translate the information into a message. The sender’s knowledge, skills, perception, background, competencies, etc. has a great impact on the success of the message.

Stage 3. Message

Once the encoding is finished, the sender gets the message that he intends to convey. The message can be written, oral, symbolic or non-verbal such as body gestures, silence, sighs, sounds, etc. or any other signal that triggers the response of a receiver.

Stage 4. Communication Channel

The Sender chooses the medium through which he wants to convey his message to the recipient. It must be selected carefully in order to make the message effective and correctly interpreted by the recipient. The choice of medium depends on the interpersonal relationships between the sender and the receiver and also on the urgency of the message being sent. Oral, virtual, written, sound, gesture, etc. are some of the commonly used communication mediums.

Stage 5. Receiver

The receiver is the person for whom the message is intended or targeted. In all the types of communication, there is always a receiver. He tries to comprehend it in the best possible manner such that the communication objective is attained. The degree to which the receiver decodes the message depends on his knowledge of the subject matter, experience, trust and relationship with the sender.

Stage 6. Decoding

Here, the receiver interprets the sender’s message and tries to understand it in the best possible manner. An effective communication occurs only if the receiver understands the message in exactly the same way as it was intended by the sender.

Stage 7. Feedback

The Feedback is the final step of the process that ensures the receiver has received the message and interpreted it correctly as it was intended by the sender. This is something which is also important in all the types of communication. It increases the effectiveness of the communication as it permits the sender to know the efficacy of his message. The response of the receiver can be verbal or non-verbal.

Types of Communication

Finally, here comes the point on which this blog post is centred, i.e., the types of communication. When it comes to the categorisation, communication is classified on different basis. There are types of communication on the basis of where it is imparted. Also, we have types of communication on the grounds of how it is imparted,

The communication is the important factor for the commercial success of any business. The organisational hierarchy also decides the type of channel through which the communication passes.

On the basis of the status of individuals involved in the communication process and the urgency of the message to be sent, the types of communication are:

1. Formal Communication

2. Informal Communication

1. Formal Communication


The first one among the types of communication is formal communication. It is the exchange of official information that flows along the different levels of the organizational hierarchy and conforms to the prescribed professional rules, policy, standards, processes and regulations of the organization.

The formal communication follows a proper predefined channel of communication and is deliberately controlled. It is governed by the chain of command and complies with all the organizational conventional rules. In the organizational set up the formal communication can observe any of the following forms:

Here the types of communication in formal sense:

a) Downward Communication

The downward communication is when the information passes from the management level to the subordinate level. This is the most common form of formal communication wherein communication flows downwards, i.e. from the people occupying top positions in the organisation to the people at lower levels.

It mainly includes orders and instructions and can either be written or oral depending on the importance of the message and also the status of individuals involved in the communication process. Reports, emails, letters, manuals, etc. are the commonly used communication tools.

b) Upward Communication

The upward communication is when the message passes from the subordinate level to the management level. Here, the communication flows upwards i.e. from the subordinates to the managers in the form of request, reports, suggestions, complaints, and instructions.

c) Lateral or Horizontal Communication

Horizontal communication means when the Co-workers with different areas of responsibilities, but at the same level in the organization communicate with each other. The communication between the managers of a different department, such as marketing, finance, production, HR, is the best example of horizontal communication.

d) Crosswise Communication

When the employees of different departments at different levels communicate with each other irrespective of the chain of command, then the communication is said to be a diagonal or a cross-wise communication. The communication between the floor manager and the sales team is the example of diagonal communication.

Being a student, your formal communication also includes the VIVAs, numerous assignments and other such things. If you want to give your best in it, learn and understand your course well. If you want someone to help in this aspect, you can also go for online assignment help.

Now, let’s move to the No. 2 in the list of types of communication:

2. Informal Communication

The second in the list of types of communication is informal one. It is the unofficial form of communication wherein the information is exchanged spontaneously between two or more persons without conforming the prescribed official rules, processes, system, formalities and chain of command.

The informal communications are based on the personal or informal relations such as friends, peers, family, club members, etc. and thus is free from the organizational conventional rules and other formalities. In the business context,

The informal communication is characterized by an indefinite channel of communication, which means there is no definite chain of command through which the information flows. Hence, the information can flow from anywhere. Often such communication arises out of the social relations that an individual creates with other persons on the basis of common interest, likes or dislikes.

There are four types of communication in informal sense:

  1. Single Strand Chain
  2. Gossip Chain
  3. Probability Chain
  4. Cluster Chain

The gossip in the organization is the best example of informal communication, wherein the employees of different department irrespective of their hierarchical positions come together and communicate with each other. The grapevine satisfies the social needs of people and smoothens the formal relations by filling in the gaps and even bring together different people who do not fall under the common chain of command.

Further, there are several forms of communication that the individuals use to give some pattern or expression to their messages such that it is easily understood by all. Here is a distinction or categorization on this basis:

The most common types of communication on the basis of how messages are expressed

I) Verbal Communication

Here is the first in this list of types of communication. Verbal communication is, wherein you speak your subject matter, and others listen to it carefully and try to associate meaning with it.

It is a type of oral communication wherein the message is transmitted through the spoken words. Here the sender gives words to his feelings, thoughts, ideas and opinions and expresses them in the form of speeches, discussions, presentations, and conversations.

The effectiveness of the verbal communication depends on the tone of the speaker, clarity of speech, volume, speed, body language and the quality of words used in the conversation. In the case of the verbal communication, the feedback is immediate since there are a simultaneous transmission and receipt of the message by the sender and receiver respectively.

The sender must keep his speech tone high and clearly audible to all and must design the subject matter keeping the target audience in mind. The sender should always cross check with the receiver to ensure that the message is understood in absolutely the same way as it was intended. Such communication is more prone to errors as sometimes the words are not sufficient to express the feelings and emotions of a person.

The success of the verbal communication depends not only on the speaking ability of an individual but also on the listening skills. How effectively an individual listens to the subject matter decides the effectiveness of the communication. The verbal communication is applicable in both the formal and informal kind of situations.

II) Non- Verbal Communication

Wherein the others observe you and try to confer a meaning to it.

It is the process of conveying meaning without the use of words either written or spoken. In other words, any communication made between two or more persons through the use of facial expressions, hand movements, body language, postures, and gestures is called as non-verbal communication.

The Non-Verbal Communication, unlike the verbal communication, helps in establishing and maintaining the interpersonal relationships while the verbals only help in communicating the external events. People use non-verbals to express emotions and interpersonal attitudes, conduct rituals such as greetings and bring forward one’s personality.

The non-verbal communication in the form of signals, expressions add meaning over the verbals and help people to communicate more efficiently. It supplements whatever is said in words, such as people nod to acknowledge and move their hands to give directions.

The non-verbal communication defines the distance between the communicators and helps them to exchange their emotional state of mind. Also, it regulates the flow of communication, for example, an individual can give signals to convey that he had finished speaking or else he wants to speak.

Sometimes, the non-verbals acts as a barrier to communicating effectively as the recipient could not understand what the sender is trying to say and may interpret it wrongly.

III) Written Communication

wherein you write your message and others read it to derive meaning out of it.

If refers to the process of conveying a message through the written symbols. In other words, any message exchanged between two or more persons that make use of written words is called as written communication.

The written communication is the most common and effective mode of business communication. In any organization, the electronic mails, memos, reports, documents, letters, journals, job descriptions, employee manuals, etc. are some of the commonly used forms of written communication.

Such communication is used when the information to be transmitted is lengthy and includes some complex terms that cannot be explained verbally. Also, the organizations maintain their documents in writings such that these can be used as a reference and evidence of any transaction anytime in the future. Thus, it is essential for every business organization to develop effective writing skills and inculcate this in all its employees.

The effectiveness of written content depends on the correct choice of words, their organization into correct sentence sequence and the cohesiveness in the sentences. The information in writing is considered more legal and valid than the spoken words. Also, people rely more on the written content than what has been said orally. But, however, unlike verbal communication the feedback of written communication is not immediate since it is not spontaneous and requires time to get into the understandable form.

Once you go have gone through types of communication, here is the time to know 7C’s of communication

7 C’s of communication


The message should be clear and easily understandable to the recipient. The purpose of the communication should be clear to sender then only the receiver will be sure about it. The message should emphasize on a single goal at a time and shall not cover several ideas in a single sentence.


The message should be correct, i.e. a correct language should be used, and the sender must ensure that there is no grammatical and spelling mistakes. Also, the message should be exact and well-timed. The correct messages have a greater impact on the receiver and at the same time, the morale of the sender increases with the accurate message.


 The message should be complete, i.e. it must include all the relevant information as required by the intended audience. The complete information gives answers to all the questions of the receivers and helps in better decision-making by the recipient.


The communication should be concrete, which means the message should be clear and particularly such that no room for misinterpretation is left. All the facts and figures should be clearly mentioned in a message so as to substantiate to whatever the sender is saying.


The message should be precise and to the point. The sender should avoid the lengthy sentences and try to convey the subject matter in the least possible words. The short and brief message is more comprehensive and helps in retaining the receiver’s attention.


The sender must take into consideration the receiver’s opinions, knowledge, mindset, background, etc. in order to have an effective communication. In order to communicate, the sender must relate to the target recipient and be involved.


It implies that the sender must take into consideration both the feelings and viewpoints of the receiver such that the message is positive and focused at the audience. The message should not be biased and must include the terms that show respect for the recipient.

Why effective communication is a must?

Effective communication is a communication between two or more persons wherein the intended message is successfully delivered, received and understood.

communication is said to be effective when all the parties (sender and receiver) in the communication, assign similar meanings to the message and listen carefully to what all have been said and make the sender feel heard and understood. In the business context, the communication is effective if the information shared among the company employees contributes towards the organization’s commercial success.

The effective communication includes not just the way you use the words but also covers several other skills such as, non-verbal communication, ability to understand your own emotions as well as of the other person with whom you are communicating, engaged listening, ability to speak assertively, etc.

Effective communication in the organization enables the employees to deepen their connection with others and improve teamwork, decision-making, and problem-solving capacity. The communication is a skill which is learned, and an individual can gain spontaneity in it by putting in his extra efforts and participating in more public conversations.

Here are the hurdles which can deprive you from communicating effectively, through them and make sure that you can stay away from them.

Barriers to effective communication


It refers to the misunderstanding between the sender and receiver arising due to the different meanings of words, and other symbols used in the communication.

Semantic Barriers

Faulty Translation

Sometimes, the sender translates the message as per his level of understanding irrespective of the recipient’s comprehension level.

Unclarified Assumptions

Sometimes the sender creates assumptions about certain things which he feels the receiver must be knowing about it and focus only on the subject matter.

Denotations and Connotations

The denotation means the literal meaning of the word, it just shows the name of the object and does not imply any negative or positive qualities.

Technical jargons

 Often people working in the technical groups such as engineers, production managers, IT managers, etc. use the technical jargons in their communication which is quite difficult for the layman to understand.

Bad Expression

The message is not formulated properly and the language used is so difficult that it could be misinterpreted by the recipient.

Symbols, or Words with Different Meanings

There are several words that carry different meanings and often, people get confused with these words and interpret these differently due to the difference in their educational and social backgrounds.

Organizational Barriers

It refers to the hindrances in the flow of information among the employees that might result in a commercial failure of an organisation.

Organisational Rules and Policies

Often, organisations have the rule with respect to what message, medium, and mode of communication should be selected.

Status or Hierarchical Positions in the Organisation

In every organisation, the employees are divided into several categories on the basis of their levels of the organisation.

Organisational Facilities

The organisational facilities mean the telephone, stationery, translator, etc., which is being provided to employees to facilitate the communication.

Complex Organisational Structure

The communication gets affected if there are a greater number of management levels in the organisation.

Psychological Barriers

It refers to the psychological state i.e. Opinions, attitudes, status consciousness, emotions, etc. of a person that deeply affects the ability to communicate.

Lack of Attention

 When the person is pre-occupied by some other things and do not listen carefully what the other person is speaking.

Premature Evaluation

Many people have a tendency to jump to the conclusions directly and form judgements without considering all the aspects of information.

Poor Retention

The retention refers to the capacity of a brain to retain or store things in the memory.

Loss by Transmission

The loss by transmission means, whenever the information exchanges hand its credibility reduces.

Personal Barriers

It relate to the factors that are personal to the sender and receiver and act as a hindrance in the communication process.

Lack of Listening Skills

The efficiency of communication process gets disturbed when the receiver listens only with ears but do not apply his mind.

Selective Attention

This problem arises when the person is impatient and put his objective above all.

Lack of vocabulary

Often, the communication problem arises when the sender uses some words which are difficult for the receiver to comprehend correctly.


Every student must have the skills to communicate in the right way. There are too many different types of communication and we use all of them some or other day in our lives. A message which is not delivered aptly, may bring absolutely no results, or adverse results as well. So, it is always better to learn to utilise them effectively. From formal to informal communication, and from verbal to written form every specific has its own criteria. The types of communication, are more in count but the best part is learning them is never too hard. All it needs is the dedication and information (which is right above).

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Everybody wants someone to provide a helping hand at bad times. We, at, work hard to keep you away from these bad times. While explaining the types of communication, I mentioned in the blog post that the key of mastering communication in student life is knowing your subject aptly. This is where, we can help you. If you want to gain some knowledge anything in your academics, our doors are open to you, just ask for assignment help online and see your work getting done. Thanks for reading!