Human Reproduction System

Human Reproduction System an Introduction
Human Reproduction System an Introduction

Reproduction is an important process for the continuation of the life cycle on planet earth. We are different from plants, and that is why our mode of reproduction is also very much different from plants. Today in this blog I am going to discuss human reproduction and reproductive organs involved in it. This blog is going to be informative for students, and you may get some good understanding of the topic after reading it. Let’s have a look at the topics which you are going to read in this blog today:

  • Human reproduction and how it differs from other types of reproduction
  • How does the male reproductive system work?
  • How does the female reproductive system work?
  • Important processes that take place during the whole course of Human reproduction

You will read on these topics today below in this blog. For further assistance, you can take assignment help from the experts in order to get good grades in academics.

Human reproduction and how it differs from other types of reproduction

There are two types of reproduction, one is Asexual, and the other is Sexual. In Asexual reproduction, offspring is produced by a single organism. Asexual reproduction does not include the fusion of male and female gametes. Offspring produced through asexual reproduction inherits the genes only from a parent. Also, the number of chromosomes remains same in asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction takes place in Single-celled organisms.

Now coming to Sexual reproduction, it is completely different from the previous one. Here Male and Female come into sexual contact to produce offspring. Human reproduction takes place through sexual reproduction. In this form of reproduction male and female gametes unite. Fertilization of two gametes forms a single-celled Zygote. The zygote holds genetic material from both the parents. All Eukaryotes like animals and humans produce offspring through Sexual reproduction.

For the Continuation of life of humans, reproduction is an essential process. It allows the birth of a new individual, in a way a new life takes place through reproduction. Both the sexes have two different reproductive structures. Male and female reproductive organs are structured in a way that when they function together, they achieve internal fertilization.

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How does the male reproductive system work

Male Reproductive System
Male Reproductive System

Humans choose to reproduce, and it is a biological process. In human reproduction, offspring produce through the internal fertilization of sperm and ova inside a female’s body. For this purpose, both males and females have a set of organs which work together to achieve this function of producing a new baby.

The male reproductive system works by producing, storing and release sex cells also known as Spermatozoa. Male reproductive system consists of following parts with specific functions:

External male reproductive parts

There are some male reproductive parts that are located outside the abdominal cavity of man. These parts are Penis, Scrotum, Testicles. Let’s read about them in detail.

Penis: Penis a male reproductive part for the purpose of sexual intercourse and urination. The penis consists of three parts, root, shaft and glans. Glans is the head of the Penis; it is in a cone shape and covered with a loose layer of skin called the foreskin. Urethra opening is located at the tip of the glans of the penis. It helps in the transportation of semen and urine. There are sensitive nerves endings present at the penis.

The penis is in cylindrical shape and consist of three chambers located internally. Chambers of the penis are made up of spongy erectile tissue which contains thousands of blood vessels. When the man is aroused sexually, blood vessels in the tissues fill with blood, and the penis becomes rigid an erect. This facilitates the process of sexual intercourse between male and female. Semen is carrying spermatozoa transfers from the penis to female reproductive organs during the aroused state of a male.

Scrotum: It is a loose sac of skin; it hangs just behind the penis. Scrotum consists of testes and many nerves and blood vessels. Scrotum act as a temperature control system for the testes. For the development of sperms, the temperature of testes should be slightly cooler than the body temperature. Several muscles in scrotum help in maintaining the temperature of the testes.

Testes: They are in oval shape and secured at the end by spermatic cord. Almost all men have two testes. Testosterone (A male sex hormone) is produced in testes. Testosterone is responsible for the production of sperms in males. There are coiled masses of tubes inside testes called seminiferous tubules. These tubules help in producing sperm cell through the process known as Spermatogenesis.

Epididymis: It is a coiled tube at the back side of testes. It helps in carrying and storage of the sperm cells of the testes. Epididymis plays an important role in the maturation of sperms. Sperms that are produced initially not having the capacity of fertilization but Epididymis matures the sperm and makes it capable of fertilization.

Organs of the internal male reproductive system

Internal organs of a male reproductive system are also known as Accessory organs. Below you can read about them in a detailed manner.

Vas deferens: it is a long, tube made up of muscles. It is connected from the epididymis to pelvic cavity which is behind the bladder.   Mature sperm is transferred through vas deferens into urethra when there is a need for ejaculation.

Ejaculatory ducts: Fusion of vas deferens and the seminal vesicles leads to the formation of Ejaculatory ducts. It ends into the urethra.

Urethra: it carries urine from bladder to outside of the body. It is a tube-like structure. It also helps in ejaculation of sperms along with semen during sexual intercourse. The flow of Urine gets blocked during the erection of the penis. At that time only semen gets ejaculated through Urethra.

Seminal vesicles: it is a sac-like structure attach to the vas deferens at the base of the bladder.  It produces Fructose that provides energy to the sperm and also helps in the motility of the sperms. Seminal vesicles make the maximum amount of fluid for the ejaculation.

Prostate gland: It is located below the urinary bladder in front of the rectum. It is a walnut-sized structure. This gland helps in providing some more fluid to the ejaculation.  It helps in the nourishment of the sperm.

Bulbourethral glands:  This gland is also called Cowper’s gland. It is of a pea-sized. They are present just below the prostate glands. Cowper secretes a slippery fluid helps in reducing the acid level of the urethra and lubricates it. Acid could be because of the presence of urine traces in Urethra.

How does the female reproductive system work?

There are several functions female reproductive system carry out. In this section, you will see how the female reproductive system works. Ovaries in females make eggs, which are known as ova. These ova then go into the fallopian tube. In the fallopian tube important process of human reproduction that is fertilization takes place. Fertilization process takes place with the help of sperms. When the egg gets fertilized, it moves towards the uterus. Here the uterine lining is thickened due to hormone function in the female. After this, the fertilized egg gets the implant in the thickened wall of the uterine and develops further. If the egg is unable to get the implant in the wall, the uterine lining sheds as menstrual flow. The female reproductive system is responsible for the production of the female sex hormones, i.e. Estrogen and progesterone.

Menopause is a stage when the female reproductive system halts the production of female hormones. This leads to the irregular menstrual cycle and then it stops finally. Let’s learn in detail about the female reproductive parts in the coming up section to understand more about the process of human reproduction.

Parts of the female reproductive system

Female Reproductive System

Just like male anatomy female reproductive anatomy also includes external and internal structures.

The work of external structure of female anatomy is to make sperm easily enter the body and to protect internal genitals from infections.

Following are the external structures that make the female reproductive system:

  • Labia majora: It is also called as large lips. They are enclosed and provide protection to the other external organs of the reproductive tract. During the time of puberty, hair growth occurs on labia majora. This part also contains sweat glands and oil-secreting glands.
  • Labia minora: it is known as small lips and is of different shapes and sizes. It comes after the labia majora in the inner side of it. Labia minora is located at the entrance of the vagina. Vagina joins uterus to the outside body. The urethra is also located in the same area. The urethra is a tube that helps in the flow of urine outside the body.  The skin of labia minora is very delicate and can become swollen.
  •  Bartholin’s glands: These glands are responsible for the mucus-like fluid and located at the vaginal opening.
  • Clitoris:  Clitoris is the area present at the joining of the labia majora and labia minora. It is covered by prepuce. The clitoris is a sensitive area and plays a role in stimulation.

After reading about the external structures of the female reproductive system, let’s learn more about the internal structure of the female reproductive system.

Internal reproductive organs of the female reproductive system

  • Vagina:  As discussed earlier it is a canal joining the cervix with the lower uterus. This part is also called as the birth canal.
  • Uterus (womb): This organ is in a pear shape and also a place where a fetus grows. The uterus is divided into cervix and corpus. Corpus is responsible for holding the baby in the developmental stage. It expands and provides grip in holding the baby. The flow of the menstrual cycle and sperm is also through a canal of the cervix.
  • Ovaries: They are an oval shape and are located in both the sides of the uterus. Ovaries are responsible for the production of ova and secretion of hormones.
  • Fallopian tubes: They are narrow canals attached to the upper uterus. They help in the transferring of the egg cells from ovaries to Uterus. The process of fertilization takes place in fallopian tubes.

 Important processes that take place during the whole course of Human reproduction

 Gametogenesis: It is a process that involves the development and production of sperms and ova which is required for new offspring. A gamete is a term used for male cells and female cells. Both the gametes fuse together to form the zygote inside female reproductive organs.

Spermatogenesis: It is the formation of the sperms in the testes in the male body. Testes are comprised of coiled tubes known as seminiferous tubules.  Production of sperm cells takes place inside these tubules. There are some cells called Sertoli cells. They help in the nourishment of sperm in the initial stage. It provides nutrition to the cells.

Oogenesis: It is a process that occurs inside the female reproductive system. It is a process that involves the growth of egg cell into the ovum, a matured one. This process starts before the female fetus is born and during the time of ovulation, there are around 40000 ova.

Fertilization: It is a process which initiates the fusion of male and female gametes. It is one of the most important functions of human reproduction.  This helps in the formation of a new life form.

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As moving towards the end of this blog, I would like to conclude it by having a short recall of the things we discussed in it. The blog is a detailed article on human reproduction and different parts involved in it. Reproduction is a biological process in which new life form takes place with the help of various internal hormonal process. Humans are the mammals, therefore, prefer to choose an internal form of fertilization. In this form of fertilization sperm and ovum fuse together inside the female body. For the fertilization to take place male and female body has to work together in order to achieve the desired result.

     Both the sexes have various organs which have their respective functions. The work of male reproductive part is production, storing, and release of sperm cells. The work of female reproductive organ is to produce an ovum, allowing sperm fusion with ovum known as fertilization and giving birth to new life eventually. This whole process of producing an offspring takes nine months.

    During these nine months, a female body goes through with many physical and psychological changes. To learn more about human reproduction take online assignment help from the experts. You will get in-depth researched knowledge about all the process.

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