Therefore, it is also extremely important that the leadership of the cargo handling operation on oil tankers is the senior officer of each department, i.e. both in the deck and engine. Every crew member on the ship should be aware of their responsibilities and duties and how to tackle the situation of emergency. All necessary safety measures and precautions should be taken to ensure the management of an event-free operation vessel is incident-free and less risky. (Poole, 1982)
Following are some of the safety measures that must be followed in oil taker industry:
Accommodation opening should be closed: It must be ensured that all the opening at accommodation should be closed to avoid the entry of vapor that used to come during cargo operations.
Restriction of utilizing fire apart from the control of inherent regions and possible sources of ignition: In oceans, the utilization of compact stoves and cooking gear is efficiently controlled. Ensure the openings and entryways are closed and check the safety and checking for the absence of hydrocarbon gas before igniting the fire.
Kitchen Stove: The utilization of kitchen stoves or other cooking hardware is restricted to open fire, while the tanker is in the booth. The utilization of other convenient power apparatuses is to be controlled. Steam items can be utilized consistently, as long as the tanker is in the booth. For this situation, Kitchen workers should be trained and prepared for crisis systems in the safe activity of kitchen equipment. Oil/fat fries are fitted with the cut-off electrical power from the indoor regulators and in this manner to prevent unintentional fire. Fire cover is easily accessible.
Guidelines for the utilization of private electric gear and other convenient power devices
Caution should be there for the visitors about the limited utilization of unauthorized kinds of versatile power gadgets in the hazardous region on the tanker. In addition to entertainment camera hardware, system, electric razor, and calculators, the utilization of electric gear in the private lodge is prohibited. Handheld devices like UHF/VHF must be of an internal safe type. Different gadgets with convenient radio, recording device, electronic mini-computer, compact phone or pager and so on are not utilized inside safe sort, on the freight tank deck or in territories where the combustible gas is absent. Potable devices like calculators, radio, recorder, pager or phone unless and until these are the internal safe type, should not be allowed in sensitive areas.
Wires without permission
In the form of an initially fitted vessel, only certain eclipse is used to connect electrical appliances.
Closing Doors and Portholes
Apart from the designated authorized route, all major roads and harbors going to the shelter should be closed in the harbor.
To further reduce the possibility of entering the housing during the cargo operation, access to accommodation should be limited to the entrance (opposite to multiple connections) above the main/upper deck level, as far as possible.
Safety measures while consequently storing ignitable material
Materials that can cause sudden ignition (that is oil rag, sawdust, particularly vegetable oil, and so on.) must be stored in an all-around ventilated region to stop the accumulation of combustible gases. Because of successive heating within the material produced by oxidation, they are responsible for igniting the heat without the external application. Some chemicals, such as agents used for boiler treatment, are also oxidizing agents, and although they are taken in this form, if they get allowed to disappear, then they are capable of combustion. See processes for handling chemicals and hazardous wastes, containers used for storage will be covered and should not be stored together with inflammable materials. (Ung, 2018)
Safety against Sparks from Funnel
Precautionary measures against the sparks from the funnel at the ocean, where sparkles/burning soups are produced from the funnel; measures to abstain from falling on deck like a spark, for example, course change, must be considered, where conceivable. A special campaign like cleaning of load tank, cleaning, sanitization, and gas free activity must be ended and all tanks must be shut. Boiler tubes must be blown before the departure from port and after the departure from a port. The shoots of boiler tubes should be halted while the tanker is on the berth. In case of any spark in such a situation, that should be informed to the chief on duty.
There are hundreds of protocols and standards to follow the guidelines of state's federal and international, which are necessary to be followed by the oil tanker operators and crew. Some of the most common and important safety criteria related to smoking, the use of electrical appliances and facilitate visitors. (Hsu, Lian, & Huang, 2017)
External Openings in Engine Rooms and Accommodation
There are tools in a tanker housing and machinery spaces which are not suitable for use in the flammable environment. Therefore, it is important that the volatile cargo vapor is excluded from these places, during the cleaning, unloading, freeing of gas, cleaning the tank and purifying, all the external doors, ports and the same opening should be closed on the tanker.
Screen door can’t be used as an option for safe for external doors. Extra doors and ports may be shut under unique conditions or because of auxiliary outsiders of the tanker.
In case external door is to be opened for the entry due to any reason, then they should be immediately closed. The closed-door should be clearly marked and at the harbor, they should not be normally locked.
Ventilations and Air-conditioning system
On the tankers with air-conditioning/ventilating units, it is important that the lodging is kept under positive pressure to stop the vapors. Ventilating units are generally sent in a protected zone and the vapors won't be drawn into the typical conditions. A positive pressure will be kept just when the air-conditioning and ventilating framework is working with its air open and if all passageways are shut, the framework works anyhow in the transient exit or entry, with the total shutdown index Should not be done, which is in the 100% recurrence mode, claiming the air in the atmosphere because of the activity of extraction fans in the kitchen and sanitary spaces. Circle pressure can be decreased by the outer condition pressure. (Håvold, 2010)
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Hsu, W. K., Lian, S. J., & Huang, S. H. (2017). Risk Assessment of Operational Safety for Oil Tankers-A Revised Risk Matrix. The Journal of Navigation, 775-778.
Poole, D. (1982). Oil well blow-out safety system. Retrieved 2 26, 2018, from http://freepatentsonline.com/4316506.html
Ulvila, Ulvila, W., & Warren, S. D. (1980). Negotiation of international oil tanker standards: An application of multiattribute value theory. Operations Research, 81-96.
Ung, S. T. (2018). Human error assessment of oil tanker grounding. Safety Science, 16-28.