research report on Human Trafficking

Write a research report on "Is race a major risk factor in human trafficking?"


 Human Trafficking is an inhuman practice in which people are being traded for some reasons especially criminal. Human trafficking is a trade in which humans are traded for the purpose of sexual slavery, forced labor, commercial sexual exploitation to the traffickers (Shelley & Lee, 2007). Human trafficking has become one of the major global issues which can be occurred nationally or internationally.  It is a crime because it violates the rights of the victims of movement through force. It is also considered as a crime because it is used for commercial exploitation. In human trafficking, the major victims are women and children. International conventions have condemned the human trafficking because it violates the rights of a human. There is a need to understand the link between trafficking and poverty, racism, gender, and migration (Kempadoo et al., 2015). It is also considered that race is one of the major factors for human trafficking. There are two major factors for which human trafficking is being practiced, and those factors are sex trafficking and labor trafficking (Ross et al., 2015). 
 Human trafficking can be categorized into three categories such as (Greenbaum, 2017);
•    Domestic Human Trafficking: 
•    Foreign Human Trafficking:
•    International Human Trafficking

Literature Review

According to a Polaris Project and TIP report 2009, about 17500 persons become victims of human trafficking each year, and the majority of the victims are women, children, and men. All the victims are from Mexico, South Asia, East Asia, Africa, Central America, and Europe. The majority of the victims are exploited for the purpose of sexual and labor exploitation, and the majority is people of color. 
According to a report of Bureau of Justice, more than 77 percent of the victims of human trafficking in the United States were people of color. It means the color is one of the most crucial risks of human trafficking. Racism is greatly rooted in human trafficking. 
According to Omelaniuk, 2005 most of the trafficked persons are those who are poor and have limited access to education and have few job opportunities. The people who are poor and those who have limited access to education and job opportunity are often forced to migrate within the country or outside the country to have better opportunities. To get better opportunity trafficked persons willingly travel with an employer based on the promise of work as a farm worker, industry worker, waitress, or domestic worker. 
According to Bernstein, 2007 the people of color affect most by the human trafficking. Most of the victims are people of color. His study shows that anti-vice measures and anti-trafficking measures have an unequal impact on increasing criminalization and surveillance of accepting street sex workers especially black women. 
According to a report of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime 2006, human trafficking is one of the most crucial global issues which have touched communities all over the world. It is not only in developing countries but also in the modern, democratic and developed countries of the world. The major victims of human trafficking are the poor and minorities. They travel of migrating from one place to another place in the serve of better job and education opportunities. But instead of getting better opportunities, they become the victims of human trafficking. 
According to the government report of the United States 2006, each year more than 700000 people trafficked internationally. The same report of the government reveals that the number of children and adult forced labor, commercial sexual servitude and bounded labor is 12.3 million all around the world. 
Leman and Janssens, 2008 conducted a study on 62 court cases of human trafficking. They found that  the victims of trafficking are treated by authorities as criminals. They may be detained, arrested after being abducted in their countries of origin and charged in the country of destination for illegally working in the country often as a prostitute. There may be other reasons as well such as in case of false documentation they also get arrested and charged by the authorities as criminals. In such cases, it is very difficult to identify such victims that whether they are victims or voluntary migrated sex workers. 
According to Gallagher & Holmes 2008, most of the women seek employment in foreign countries through corrupt employment agencies. In some of the cases, the women were attracted by being promised jobs and given the wrong promise in the form of high wages. When they travel all the way from home country to the destination country, they become the victim of human trafficking. The employer sold them for forced labor, bounded labor, or sex worker.

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Race Sex Trafficking Victims Labor Trafficking Victims
White  25.6% 1.6%
Blacks 40.4% 9.8%
Hispanic 23.9% 55.7%
Asian 4.3% 14.8%
Others 5.8% 18%
The study of human trafficking has been conducted on two factors, i.e., Sex Trafficking Victims by Race and Labor Trafficking Victims by Race. The study includes five major elements on which the study is focused. The elements on which the study has been conducted are the following; Asian, White, Black, Hispanic, and others. Both the factors Sex Trafficking Victims by Race and Labor Trafficking Victim by Race have been studied on these five elements. In sex trafficking victim by race, it was found that 40.4% black are the victims of sex trafficking while only 25.6% whites are the victim of sex trafficking. 23.9% Hispanic are the victims of sex trafficking. 5.8 % others are the victim of sex trafficking. The lowest number is of Asian. Only 4.3% Asians are the victim of sex trafficking. 
If we talk about labor trafficking victims by race, the study found that 55.7 % Hispanics are the victims of labor trafficking while 18% others are the victims of labor trafficking. Asians are on the third number. 14.8 % Asians are the victims of labor trafficking. Blacks are on the fourth number. They account for 9.8%. The Whites are least in number. Only 1.6% are the victims of labor trafficking.


Human trafficking is one of the major global issues in today world. The issue of human trafficking is increasing day by day. The major causes of human trafficking are race, poverty, political conditions, war, cultural and social practices (DI Nicola, 2007). But the race is a major risk in human trafficking. It also has been found in the study that race is a major risk in human trafficking. The result of the study shows that blacks are being abducted for sexual slavery while Hispanics are being abducted for forced labor.  Therefore, it can be said that race is a major risk in human trafficking.


Shelley, L., & Lee, M. (2007). Human trafficking as a form of transnational crime. Human trafficking, 116-137.
Kempadoo, K., Sanghera, J., & Pattanaik, B. (2015). Trafficking and prostitution reconsidered: New perspectives on migration, sex work, and human rights. Routledge.
Di Nicola, A. (2007). Researching into human trafficking: Issues and problems. Human trafficking, 49-72.
Greenbaum, J. (2017). Introduction to Human Trafficking: Who Is Affected?. In Human Trafficking Is a Public Health Issue(pp. 1-14). Springer, Cham.
Ross, C., Dimitrova, S., Howard, L. M., Dewey, M., Zimmerman, C., & Oram, S. (2015). Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking. BMJ Open, 5(8), e008682.

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