Task-1: Mental illness can be difficult to diagnose
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Physical illness: It can prompt misery through the brought down disposition that we can all experience when we are unwell, in pain or uneasiness, restricted and less ready to do the things we appreciate. Ailment can likewise change the body's working in a way that prompts discouragement. Regardless of the fact that the sickness is not making us feel down we can in any case experience the ill effects of wretchedness e.g., growths can deliver a depressive disease
o Even if the illness is not making us feel down we can still suffer from depression e.g., cancers can produce a depressive illness
o The ageing brain: The aging can influence the brain’s function by affecting the neurotransmitter pathways. It lead to late onset depression; psychotic or melancholic type of depression
o Stress: It is imperative to perceive that about each individual can be pushed and discouraged by specific occasions. A great many people get over the anxiety or sadness inside of days or weeks while others do no. The contributing factors for stress includes long-standing stresses and perception of shame (Schneiderman et al, 2005)
o Personality: Large amounts of nervousness, which can be experienced as a disguised 'restless stressing' style or as a more externalized 'peevishness'. Modesty communicated as 'social shirking' and/or 'individual store' Self-feedback or low self-esteem; High interpersonal affectability.
o Abuse: Past physical, sexual, or psychological mistreatment can bring about sadness sometime down the road.
o Certain medications: Some medications, for example, Accutane (used to treat skin break out), the antiviral medication interferon-alpha, and corticosteroids, can build your danger of sorrow.
o Struggle: Depression in somebody who has the organic defenselessness to create wretchedness might come about because of individual clashes or debate with relatives or companions.
o Death or a loss: Sadness or melancholy from the passing or loss of a friend or family member, however common, might expand the danger of wretchedness.
o Major events: Even great occasions, for example, beginning another occupation, graduating, or getting hitched can prompt discouragement. So can moving, losing a vocation or salary, getting separated, or resigning.
o Other personal problems: Problems, for example, social confinement because of other emotional sicknesses or being thrown out of a family or social gathering can prompt sorrow.
o Serious illnesses: Sometimes despondency coincides with a noteworthy ailment or is a response to the disease.
Diverse classes of drugs can be indicated for the treatment of depression. However, the drugs act by different mechanism. The following are the drugs
o Monoamine oxidase inhibitors: The drugs increases the amount of norepinephrine and serotonin in the brain E.g., Selegiline
o Tricyclic antidepressants: Increases the available amount of serotonin and/or norepinephrine in the brain E.g., Amitriptyline, Amoxapine
o Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a newer form of antidepressant. These drugs work by altering the amount of a chemical in the brain called serotonin. E.g, Fluoxetine, noradrenaline or dopamine
o Newer drugs that acting on multiple receptors: Venlafaxine or the multiple receptor-acting substances mirtazepine, nefazodone, bupropion, and trazodone
o Patient counseling with psychiatric to reduce the depression (Fig-2)
o Cognitive therapy: CT is the best-known and most widely tested of a larger family of cognitive behavioural interventions and is used in the treatment of acute episodes of major depressive disorder (DeRubeis et al., 2008).
o Endocrine processes in depression: The deficiency of certain hormones (Cortisol, growth hormone) needs to be corrected to reduce the symptoms of depression
GLASSMAN AH & SHAPIRO PA (1998) Depression and the course of coronary artery disease. Am J Psychiatry. 155(1) p. 4-11
POWELL, T (1997) Consultation-liaison psychiatry and clinical ethics. Representative cases. Psychosomatics. 38(4) p. 321-6
SCHNEIDERMAN, N., IRONSON, G., & SIEGEL, S. D. (2005). Stress and health: Psychological, behavioral, and biological determinants. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1 p. 607–628.