infection prevention and control theory


Q. With reference to infection prevention and control theory critically discuss the challenges of managing Surgical Site Infection in the workplace or the community. 


Infection Control


Infection control is an important regulation as well as measure that helps in preventing various kinds of diseases such as nosocomial, certain health problems etc. It is an important technique that helps in the better development and growth of the people. The infection control is also an important part of the epidemiology. Previously it is not given much importance as it was not recognized. However, in the present time, infection control has become an important part of the epidemiology which emphasizes and takes important measures to improve and make the people aware about their health. Infection control and prevention practices are inter-related with one another that plays a major role in developing as well as maintaining a safety and health environment. It is done so that the risk of potential diseases can be controlled. The measures also taken to stop the spreading of infectious diseases from one person to another. The hospitals along with the help of the government makes various rules and regulations such as Health and Safety at Work Act also known as HASAWA, Disease and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations also known as RIDDOR, Control of Substances Hazardous to Health also known as (COSHH) etc. are followed by health organizations. The various ways of infection control are hygiene maintenance, usage of personal protective equipment, using safe injection techniques etc. The anti-infective agents that can protect various kinds of infections are antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, antiprotozoal and also antibacterial. Hong Kong is a self-control or independent region of China. It is also the previous colony of the English and so have high lifestyle. The state is situated in the south eastern region of China. The country. The health department of the HKSAR is efficient and effective. It even advises the government to make important measures so that the people can be protected from any kind of measures. 

Organization of Infection Control in the workplace and by the Hong Kong Government

Infection also known as contamination or epidemic is caused by various kinds of pathogens of bugs such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa or for any other reasons. The microscopic organisms enter the body through any cuts or any kind of transmissions. The microbes may take some time or can react fast depending on the nature of its multiplicity. It is important and necessary to control and even prevent the spread of infection within the workplace or community (Apisarnthanarak, Pinitchai, Warachan et al., 2014). The organizations as well as the government plays various kinds of policies, rules and regulations, using the correct instruments so that the infectious diseases can be prevented and controlled completely. 
The rules and the regulations of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, procedures of infection control as well as the proper training and apparatus are maintained and provided by the employers so that the employees can work nicely and give their best in the assigned tasks. It is because the better health helps the employees to fulfil both the personal and the professional goals can be achieved easily and efficiently (Brown, Khanafer, Daneman and Fisman, 2013). The infections can be spread through air, water, food, skin-to skin contact, contaminated objects, also from body fluids. 
Various precautions measures can be taken. There are two types of precaution techniques. They are—Standard precaution and transmission-based precautions. Standard precaution is formed of various kinds of precaution guidelines that plays an important role to reduce the risks of infections. So, it is important to maintain proper hygiene, various kinds of apparatus such as gloves, safe injection, masks, respirators etc. as well as environmental cleaning is important (Cammarota, Ianiro and Gasbarrini, 2014). The transmission-based precautions are that kind of precaution techniques that may or may not be able to save the people from contamination of diseases. They are contact, air as well as droplet contamination. The measures that can be used are first, the regular hand wash practice and secondly, protecting the skin form any kind of hurts or injuries so that any kind of pathogens cannot enter the body and harm the people of any age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012). 
The Hong Kong government plays an important role in the development and protection of the people. The department of health not only advices but also executes various kinds of policies, rules and regulations as well as implement them efficiently and effectively (Farbman, Avni, Rubinovitch et al., 2013). It even protects the people’s health by promoting, preventing, curative as well as by providing rehabilitating services. 

Place Order For A Top Grade Assignment Now

We have some amazing discount offers running for the students

Place Your Order

The nature of the specific microorganism & what it does to the body 
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) also known as C-diff is an infection which causes various kinds of infections or diseases. The various diseases are caused by spore forming bacteria. Known as Clostridium difficile. It should also be kept in mind that 20% of diarrhea occurs due to of  antibiotic. Apart from symptoms and pains various kinds of complications can also cause due to the mentioned disease (Evans, 2013). They are toxic megacolon, sepsis, colon perforation and pseudomembranous colitis. 
The reasons that are responsible for the spread of the infection are—first, the presence of the disease within the environment such as soil, air, water etc. Second, it also spreads due some human carriers. Finally, the infection also spreads due to animal and food products (Hamilton, Weingarden, Sadowsky and Khoruts, 2012).
The people of any age, income and occupation can be affected by the bacteria. It can also be carried by some people from whom the infection can spread to other people of the society. The bacteria stay inside the carrier without harming or making him or her sick.
The infection is mainly caused due to the overuse of the antibiotics. Generally, the signs as well as the symptoms of the disease progresses on the patient within 5 to 10 days while starting or continuing the antibiotics course (Jaggi, Rodrigues, Rosenthal et al., 2013). However, it may start to progress after the need of the course or after two to three months.  There are two main types of the infection. They are mild to moderate and severe infection. 
The symptoms of the mild to the moderate CDI infection are—first, water diarrhea occurs more than three times a day for many days. Secondly, mild pain, cramping and tenderness within the abdomen occurs making the person dehydrated. The severe infection signs are first, the water diarrhoea occurs for more than 15 times in a day. Second, severe abdomen pain as well as cramping (Johnson, Louie, Gerding et al.,2014). Third, the heart rate increases. Fourth, nausea may occur. Fifth, dehydration and loss of appetite occurs. Sixth, weight loss as well as blood can be found in the stool. Seventh, the kind fails to work and finally the increased of the white blood cells. 
Various kinds of diseases and infections can occur harming the people to live good life. They have to suffer a lot in both the personal as well as in the professional life (Kassam, Lee, Yuan and Hunt, 2013). The person is not able to work hard, loss focus and confidence as he or she is not able to fight with the illness. 

The impact of infection

CDI or C-diff infection harms the patients physical, mental, socially as well as economically a lot. The physical and mental impact of the infection are--
Dehydration is the severe stage of diarrhoea due to which the person loss a significant amount of fluids as well as electrolytes from the body. So, it is difficult for the person to perform well as the body cannot perform normally (Kouadio, Aljunid, Kamigaki et al., 2012). The blood pressure of the person falls to the lower level. So, it is difficult for the person to survive. 
Diarrhoea is another important infection that affects the physical and the mental health of the person a lot. It is because due to this kind of infection, the person again has to lose a definite amount of liquid from the body making him or her weak.
Failure of the kidney is another important infection that occurs due to the CDI. The kidney is an important part of the human body that helps the body to gain good energy by performing well. It needs a significant amount of water (Landelle, Marimuthu and Harbarth, 2014). However, due to various infections such as dehydration, diarrhoea etc, the body losses a significant amount making it impossible for the kidney to function. The kidney also starts deteriorating fast leading the person towards death.
Nausea also known as vomiting diarrhea is caused due to the CDI infection. In this case, the person feels uneasy and also severe pain within the abdomen. He or she is unable to perform any kind of work as the person has to stay confined within a room until becomes fit (Lee and Bishop, 2012). 
Toxic megacolon is another infection that affects both the physical and the mental health of the person. It is rare diseases in which the colon cannot remove gas or stool. If the disease is not solved fast then it may rupture the colon leading the person to death. 
Bowel perforation is another rare disease which causes due CDI (Leffler and Lamont, 2015). It harms and damages the large intestine badly along with the abdomen portion of the body. 
The social and the economic impacts of the infection are—first, the patient is not able to concentrate nicely in his or her professional life. The person fails to give the best performance due to illness, lack of confidence and focus. Secondly, it is also not easy to meet and socialize with people as the person has to visit hospitals for treatment or have to stay in home for medication (Lessa, Gould and McDonald, 2012). Thirdly, huge amount of money has to be spend.
Infection prevention and control measures 
The different measures to prevent and control the workplace employees from CDI infection are—first, it is important to wash the hands regularly and maintain good hygiene while working with different kinds of people within the organization. It is also clean the hands with warm water and soap so that the bacteria of the disease cannot enter the victim’s body by any means. Second, it is also important to maintain the contact precautions (Luu, Syed, Raman et al., 2013). It means the victims who are suffering from the CDI infection should have private room or should work with the person suffering from the same disease. The family members should be visiting the person either in the hospital or in the workplace by taking good precautions such as gloves etc. Hospital staff and visitors wear disposable gloves and isolation gowns while in the room (Mai-Prochnow, Murphy, McLean et al., 2014). Third, it is also important to do good cleaning in the workplace so that the risk of any kind of infections can be destroyed completely. Fourth, antibiotics should not be used a lot. It is because too much use of antibiotics is one of the main reasons for which the infection arises. Fourth, good nutrition and water should be consumed. It is because good food and any kind of fluid substances such as water, sugar, juice, salt etc can protect the body from the attack of any kind of infections (Mattila, Uusitalo–Seppälä, Wuorela et al., 2012). Fifth, the organizations should follow the health and protection rules carefully. The measures should be implemented effectively and the employees should be provided with medical check-up within 3 to 6 months so that the employees can be provided with proper care and treatment. The measures will help the firms to stop the spreading of any kind of infection. Sixth, surveillance is another important measure which the organization should use to apply the prevention as well as the control measure (Mayhall, 2012). It is the responsibility of the organization to gather data as it will be easier to understand the patterns of the infection based on which correct measures can eb taken to protect the employees. The implementation rules should be assessed regularly helping to prevent the infection completely. Seventh, the limited use of antibiotics is another important measure for the better growth of the employees and the organization. The employees should be made aware about the bad and the good effects of the antibiotics. Finally, safety programs should be organised so the employees can understand the importance of the working cooperatively and coordinatingly (Pogorzelska, Stone and Larson, 2012). The teamwork and the leadership qualities of the employees will also develop.

 Audit, surveillance and risk management processes to prevent and control the spread of infection within the workplace 

The audit, surveillance as well as the risk management plays an important role in not only preventing but also in controlling the infection spread within the workplace. The risk management is an important part of the organization which not only identifies the risks but also analyses the health risks. The risks also help to identify the impact of the diseases on the performance and growth of the employees and also the overall development of the organization in the competitive market. Different kinds of approaches are selected to deal with the different kinds of diseases. It is the responsibility of the management to provide various kinds of support so that the infection prevention and control methods can be successful (Surawicz, Brandt, Binion et al., 2013). The employees will also learn to cooperate nicely and fulfill the tasks efficiently.  So, the firm should assess the risks and then identify, analyze and finally handle the risks with proper measures. 
Auditing and monitoring are another important step of the organization to prevent and control the spread of the infections within the workplace. First, it is mandatory to follow the audit as well as the monitoring rules. Second, after monitoring and auditing the reports should be send to Health Protection Agency or (HPA) and also to the local authority or SHA so that proper measures can be taken easily. Third, if the patients are identified with CDI disease then the patients should be provided with immediate treatment. They should be separated from the rest of the employees so that the infection does not spread to the others through any kind of sources. Fourth, all the staffs should be clearly explained about the safety and the health measures and rules of the organizations (Yinnon, Wiener-Well, Jerassy et al., 2012). The employees will understand their responsibilities nicely gaining gradually progress in the life. Finally, any kind of antibiotics should not be used for the patients until it is necessary. It is because many patients of different ages may react to the treatment differently leading to worse health condition or death. 
The surveillance technique is another important step to control as well as to prevent the spread of the CDI infection within the employees in the workplace. First it is important to carry out the Surveillance program of CDI regularly by the department Infection Prevention and Control Team. Second, if CDI infection is identified then it should be reported immediately to the Department of Health so that a strong and improved surveillance system can be formed. Third, the measures should be reviewed depending on the situation and the time. Fourth, new measures should be formed and evaluated to control the spread of the infection. Fifth, feedback about the evaluation of the measures should be provided to the organization daily by analyzing the main causes (Chopra, O'horo, Rogers et al., 2013). Finally, the government should also take responsibilities to reduce the infection and increase the monitoring progress.

Policies and public health measures of Hong Kong

The Hong Kong government plays an important role in the better development and growth of the citizens.  It even makes and protects the people’s health by making many medical rules and regulations.  The government of Hong Kong also provided various promotive, preventive, controllable, curative as well as reformative services for the betterment of the people. The government also has initiated many small community health care centers so that the people can get privilege of free medical treatment at any time and at any place of Hong Kong.  It is also improving the community partnership with the help of the international collaboration. The main important responsibilities performed by the health care policies and the centers are—first, various kinds of rules and regulations are developed and implemented by the health care system (Nelson and Williams, 2013). Secondly, the doctors and important medical persons advices the government to make laws on the different aspects of the health. Third, the government also uses better promotion and advertising techniques so that the people of different social strata of the society can understand what is good and what is bad for their health. Fourth, the efficient doctors also address in various seminars to make the people aware about the health and the safety measures so that the latter can stay fit and healthy. Finally, preventive measures are also taken to protect the people from any kind of diseases or infections. Proper checking and control are also done regularly. The government also provides proper resources to both the public as well as the private hospitals. It is done so that the people can live a healthy life. The government even takes measures to improve the environment so that any kind of airborne disease cannot harm the people (Longtin, Trottier, Brochu et al., 2012). The government also focusses on the security and the safety of the people.

Conclusion—The evidence underpins the discussion

Hence, it can be clearly understood that it is the responsibility of both the organization as well as the government to develop and implement strong healthy and precaution measures. It is because good healthy and precaution measures can help both the organization, its employees and the state as a whole to gain good success and growth among its competitors. It is also seen that CDI or C-diff is an important infection that can attack and harm the people irrespective of age, gender, profession, income etc. It is also clear that the infection can attack the person through air, soil, water etc. and also due to much intake of the antibiotics. So, it is advisable that too much antibiotics should not be inhaled. Hence, it is mandatory that the people should be careful about their health and should take the help and proper guidance of the doctors if any kind of problem arose.  Both the firms and the Hong Kong government follows various kinds of safety and control measures to safeguard the people. Various techniques such as surveillance, risk analysis, auditing, monitoring and many more prevention and control measures are followed and monitored so as to identify and protect the people.


Apisarnthanarak, A., Pinitchai, U., Warachan, B., Warren, D. K., Khawcharoenporn, T. and Hayden, M. K. (2014). Effectiveness of infection prevention measures featuring advanced source control and environmental cleaning to limit transmission of extremely-drug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Thai intensive care unit: An analysis before and after extensive flooding. American journal of infection control, 42(2), 116-121.
Brown, K. A., Khanafer, N., Daneman, N. and Fisman, D. N. (2013). Meta-analysis of antibiotics and the risk of community-associated Clostridium difficile infection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 57(5), 2326-2332.
Cammarota, G., Ianiro, G. and Gasbarrini, A. (2014). Fecal microbiota transplantation for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review. Journal of clinical gastroenterology, 48(8), 693-702.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2012). Vital signs: preventing Clostridium difficile infections. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 61(9), 157.
Chopra, V., O'horo, J. C., Rogers, M. A., Maki, D. G. and Safdar, N. (2013). The risk of bloodstream infection associated with peripherally inserted central catheters compared with central venous catheters in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 34(9), 908-918.
Evans, A. S. (2013). Viral infections of humans: epidemiology and control. Sydney: Springer Science & Business Media.
Farbman, L., Avni, T., Rubinovitch, B., Leibovici, L. and Paul, M. (2013). Cost–benefit of infection control interventions targeting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals: systematic review. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 19(12), E582-E593.
Hamilton, M. J., Weingarden, A. R., Sadowsky, M. J. and Khoruts, A. (2012). Standardized frozen preparation for transplantation of fecal microbiota for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. The American journal of gastroenterology, 107(5), 761.
Jaggi, N., Rodrigues, C., Rosenthal, V. D., Todi, S. K., Shah, S., Saini, N. and Singh, S. (2013). Impact of an international nosocomial infection control consortium multidimensional approach on central line-associated bloodstream infection rates in adult intensive care units in eight cities in India. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 17(12), e1218-e1224.
Johnson, S., Louie, T. J., Gerding, D. N., Cornely, O. A., Chasan-Taber, S., Fitts, D. and Polymer Alternative for CDI Treatment (PACT) investigators. (2014). Vancomycin, metronidazole, or tolevamer for Clostridium difficile infection: results from two multinational, randomized, controlled trials. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 59(3), 345-354.
Kassam, Z., Lee, C. H., Yuan, Y. and Hunt, R. H. (2013). Fecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. The American journal of gastroenterology, 108(4), 500.
Kouadio, I. K., Aljunid, S., Kamigaki, T., Hammad, K. and Oshitani, H. (2012). Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures. Expert review of anti-infective therapy, 10(1), 95-104.
Landelle, C., Marimuthu, K. and Harbarth, S. (2014). Infection control measures to decrease the burden of antimicrobial resistance in the critical care setting. Current opinion in critical care, 20(5), 499-506.
Lee, G. and Bishop, P. (2012). Microbiology and infection control for health professionals. New York: Pearson Higher Education AU.
Leffler, D. A. and Lamont, J. T. (2015). Clostridium difficile infection. New England Journal of Medicine, 372(16), 1539-1548.
Lessa, F. C., Gould, C. V. and McDonald, L. C. (2012). Current status of Clostridium difficile infection epidemiology. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 55(suppl_2), S65-S70.
Longtin, Y., Trottier, S., Brochu, G., Paquet-Bolduc, B., Garenc, C., Loungnarath, V. and Longtin, J. (2012). Impact of the type of diagnostic assay on Clostridium difficile infection and complication rates in a mandatory reporting program. Clinical infectious diseases, 56(1), 67-73.
Luu, A., Syed, F., Raman, G., Bhalla, A., Muldoon, E., Hadley, S. and Rao, M. (2013). Two-stage arthroplasty for prosthetic joint infection: a systematic review of acute kidney injury, systemic toxicity and infection control. The Journal of arthroplasty, 28(9), 1490-1498.
Mai-Prochnow, A., Murphy, A. B., McLean, K. M., Kong, M. G. and Ostrikov, K. K. (2014). Atmospheric pressure plasmas: infection control and bacterial responses. International journal of antimicrobial agents, 43(6), 508-517.
Mattila, E., Uusitalo–Seppälä, R., Wuorela, M., Lehtola, L., Nurmi, H., Ristikankare, M. and Anttila, V. J. (2012). Fecal transplantation, through colonoscopy, is effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterology, 142(3), 490-496.
Mayhall, C. G. (2012). Hospital epidemiology and infection control. New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Nelson, K. E. and Williams, C. M. (Eds.). (2013). Infectious disease epidemiology. Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
Pogorzelska, M., Stone, P. W. and Larson, E. L. (2012). Certification in infection control matters: impact of infection control department characteristics and policies on rates of multidrug-resistant infections. American journal of infection control, 40(2), 96-101.
Surawicz, C. M., Brandt, L. J., Binion, D. G., Ananthakrishnan, A. N., Curry, S. R., Gilligan, P. H. and Zuckerbraun, B. S. (2013). Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Clostridium difficile infections. The American journal of gastroenterology, 108(4), 478.
Yinnon, A. M., Wiener-Well, Y., Jerassy, Z., Dor, M., Freund, R., Mazouz, B. and Kopuit, P. (2012). Improving implementation of infection control guidelines to reduce nosocomial infection rates: pioneering the report card. Journal of Hospital Infection, 81(3),

Get Quality Assignment Without Paying Upfront

Hire World's #1 Assignment Help Company

Place Your Order