- Infection Control
- Organization of Infection Control in the workplace and by the Hong Kong Government
- The nature of the specific microorganism & what it does to the body
- The impact of infection
- Audit, surveillance and risk management processes to prevent and control the spread of infection within the workplace
- Policies and public health measures of Hong Kong
- Conclusion—The evidence underpins the discussion
Organization of Infection Control in the workplace and by the Hong Kong Government
The rules and the regulations of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, procedures of infection control as well as the proper training and apparatus are maintained and provided by the employers so that the employees can work nicely and give their best in the assigned tasks. It is because the better health helps the employees to fulfil both the personal and the professional goals can be achieved easily and efficiently (Brown, Khanafer, Daneman and Fisman, 2013). The infections can be spread through air, water, food, skin-to skin contact, contaminated objects, also from body fluids.
Various precautions measures can be taken. There are two types of precaution techniques. They are—Standard precaution and transmission-based precautions. Standard precaution is formed of various kinds of precaution guidelines that plays an important role to reduce the risks of infections. So, it is important to maintain proper hygiene, various kinds of apparatus such as gloves, safe injection, masks, respirators etc. as well as environmental cleaning is important (Cammarota, Ianiro and Gasbarrini, 2014). The transmission-based precautions are that kind of precaution techniques that may or may not be able to save the people from contamination of diseases. They are contact, air as well as droplet contamination. The measures that can be used are first, the regular hand wash practice and secondly, protecting the skin form any kind of hurts or injuries so that any kind of pathogens cannot enter the body and harm the people of any age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2012).
The Hong Kong government plays an important role in the development and protection of the people. The department of health not only advices but also executes various kinds of policies, rules and regulations as well as implement them efficiently and effectively (Farbman, Avni, Rubinovitch et al., 2013). It even protects the people’s health by promoting, preventing, curative as well as by providing rehabilitating services.
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The reasons that are responsible for the spread of the infection are—first, the presence of the disease within the environment such as soil, air, water etc. Second, it also spreads due some human carriers. Finally, the infection also spreads due to animal and food products (Hamilton, Weingarden, Sadowsky and Khoruts, 2012).
The people of any age, income and occupation can be affected by the bacteria. It can also be carried by some people from whom the infection can spread to other people of the society. The bacteria stay inside the carrier without harming or making him or her sick.
The infection is mainly caused due to the overuse of the antibiotics. Generally, the signs as well as the symptoms of the disease progresses on the patient within 5 to 10 days while starting or continuing the antibiotics course (Jaggi, Rodrigues, Rosenthal et al., 2013). However, it may start to progress after the need of the course or after two to three months. There are two main types of the infection. They are mild to moderate and severe infection.
The symptoms of the mild to the moderate CDI infection are—first, water diarrhea occurs more than three times a day for many days. Secondly, mild pain, cramping and tenderness within the abdomen occurs making the person dehydrated. The severe infection signs are first, the water diarrhoea occurs for more than 15 times in a day. Second, severe abdomen pain as well as cramping (Johnson, Louie, Gerding et al.,2014). Third, the heart rate increases. Fourth, nausea may occur. Fifth, dehydration and loss of appetite occurs. Sixth, weight loss as well as blood can be found in the stool. Seventh, the kind fails to work and finally the increased of the white blood cells.
Various kinds of diseases and infections can occur harming the people to live good life. They have to suffer a lot in both the personal as well as in the professional life (Kassam, Lee, Yuan and Hunt, 2013). The person is not able to work hard, loss focus and confidence as he or she is not able to fight with the illness.
The impact of infection
Dehydration is the severe stage of diarrhoea due to which the person loss a significant amount of fluids as well as electrolytes from the body. So, it is difficult for the person to perform well as the body cannot perform normally (Kouadio, Aljunid, Kamigaki et al., 2012). The blood pressure of the person falls to the lower level. So, it is difficult for the person to survive.
Diarrhoea is another important infection that affects the physical and the mental health of the person a lot. It is because due to this kind of infection, the person again has to lose a definite amount of liquid from the body making him or her weak.
Failure of the kidney is another important infection that occurs due to the CDI. The kidney is an important part of the human body that helps the body to gain good energy by performing well. It needs a significant amount of water (Landelle, Marimuthu and Harbarth, 2014). However, due to various infections such as dehydration, diarrhoea etc, the body losses a significant amount making it impossible for the kidney to function. The kidney also starts deteriorating fast leading the person towards death.
Nausea also known as vomiting diarrhea is caused due to the CDI infection. In this case, the person feels uneasy and also severe pain within the abdomen. He or she is unable to perform any kind of work as the person has to stay confined within a room until becomes fit (Lee and Bishop, 2012).
Toxic megacolon is another infection that affects both the physical and the mental health of the person. It is rare diseases in which the colon cannot remove gas or stool. If the disease is not solved fast then it may rupture the colon leading the person to death.
Bowel perforation is another rare disease which causes due CDI (Leffler and Lamont, 2015). It harms and damages the large intestine badly along with the abdomen portion of the body.
The social and the economic impacts of the infection are—first, the patient is not able to concentrate nicely in his or her professional life. The person fails to give the best performance due to illness, lack of confidence and focus. Secondly, it is also not easy to meet and socialize with people as the person has to visit hospitals for treatment or have to stay in home for medication (Lessa, Gould and McDonald, 2012). Thirdly, huge amount of money has to be spend.
Audit, surveillance and risk management processes to prevent and control the spread of infection within the workplace
Auditing and monitoring are another important step of the organization to prevent and control the spread of the infections within the workplace. First, it is mandatory to follow the audit as well as the monitoring rules. Second, after monitoring and auditing the reports should be send to Health Protection Agency or (HPA) and also to the local authority or SHA so that proper measures can be taken easily. Third, if the patients are identified with CDI disease then the patients should be provided with immediate treatment. They should be separated from the rest of the employees so that the infection does not spread to the others through any kind of sources. Fourth, all the staffs should be clearly explained about the safety and the health measures and rules of the organizations (Yinnon, Wiener-Well, Jerassy et al., 2012). The employees will understand their responsibilities nicely gaining gradually progress in the life. Finally, any kind of antibiotics should not be used for the patients until it is necessary. It is because many patients of different ages may react to the treatment differently leading to worse health condition or death.
The surveillance technique is another important step to control as well as to prevent the spread of the CDI infection within the employees in the workplace. First it is important to carry out the Surveillance program of CDI regularly by the department Infection Prevention and Control Team. Second, if CDI infection is identified then it should be reported immediately to the Department of Health so that a strong and improved surveillance system can be formed. Third, the measures should be reviewed depending on the situation and the time. Fourth, new measures should be formed and evaluated to control the spread of the infection. Fifth, feedback about the evaluation of the measures should be provided to the organization daily by analyzing the main causes (Chopra, O'horo, Rogers et al., 2013). Finally, the government should also take responsibilities to reduce the infection and increase the monitoring progress.
Policies and public health measures of Hong Kong
Conclusion—The evidence underpins the discussion
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