Identify and discuss two (2) development characterstics from either the biological (physical ) ,cognitive or socio emotional domains in one lifespan perspective.Analyse how relevant theory and research can assist with our understanding of these developmental characterstics ,as well as discussing how Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory impacts our understanding of this lifespan perspective.



There are several developments occur in an individual in accordance with the lifespan. In accordance with the given context, it can be said that lifecycle is being defined as the developmental stage that occurs in the lifetime of an individual. The chosen life stage for the current report is late adulthood or old age which begins at 65 and ends when a person died (Payne and Isaacs, 2017). In this current report, the discussion will be carried out upon two developmental characteristics of late adulthood and these are changes in physical appearance and decline in the speed of processing information. Here, physical appearance feature is related to activity theory.
 This theory indicates that an individual should remain active irrespective of their age. Further, the decline in the speed of processing information is related with disengagement theory which depicts that it is normal withdrawal themselves from the society as they ages. This happens because of their mental condition which changes due to their age. In addition to this, here discussion will also carry out upon Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory impact upon the chosen lifespan characteristics. The chronosystem is one of a stage in an ecological model that has an impact on both mentioned features. For example, change in employment status and economic cycles are the features of chronosystem which have a significant impact on late adulthood characteristics.


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Development characteristics of late adulthood 

There are two different developmental features of late adulthood examined. These are all enumerated in below:

Physical development in terms of change in the physical appearances

According to the viewpoint of Lenart and Vaupel (2017) in late adulthood physical appearances occur in people and these are in the form of wrinkles, thin hair, thick nails, tiredness and less sleep. In this regard, another Wilson and, (2017) have depicted that the lifestyle of an individual could be considered as one of the major factors which leads to decline physical ability of old age people. For example, an individual who have a poor diet and perform less exercise are more confronted to the problem of pain and lack of sleep during their late adulthood.

 In addition to this, there are other physical changes identified which happens during old age. This consists of decreasing muscle mass and poor immune system. Besides this, Weadick and Sommer (2017) has indicated that old age people suffered from a different type of diseases which make their life very difficult to live. Thus, it can be said that aging leads to decline phase. However, the physical development that happens in old age people tends to cause a significant impact on their psychology. For example, people of late adulthood think that keeping active and aging are negatively related to each other. This is because old age generally set their mindset that since they are old so they are not allowed to do anything. This is because; if they do then in the given situation they might get a physical injury. However, Hulteen and, (2018) have critically evaluated that an individual who leads an active life in their middle and early adulthood will spend their late adulthood life through this way only. 

Cognitive development in terms of decline in the speed of processing information

It is another type of development that happens during late adulthood. In accordance with the given context, it can be said that cognitive development is basically the construction of thought processes that change at different life stages. Herein, according to the viewpoint of Juhaszova and, (2018) during late adulthood people experience the problem of decline in the speed of processing information. In other words, it can be said that the old age people face the condition of dementia. It is the type of situation which has a direct impact on the memory of an individual. In this, people are not able to recognize things. In addition to this, the given condition give rise to the situation of depression. This is because; no individual wants to stay with a person who is not able to recognize things (Seo and, 2018). This is because, if they stay then in the given situation they have to remind about the things to them on a frequent basis which is a very tiring and hectic task. Thus, it is due to the presence of the given aspect many people in late adulthood face depression and this lead to sadness. Further, the given thing gives rise to several other diseases also. The given thing also causes psychological impact upon this individual. Herein, these people think that they should disengage themselves from the other people of society.

The first theory is activity theory which depicts that keeping well and aging well are positively related to each other. This entails that an individual can become a physically active in its late adulthood if he/she follows healthy practices. This is because aging is only in the mind of people and if they think that they are physically well at that time they can live their life healthy (Green, 2017).

Similarly, disengagement is another theory. This depicts that the old age people condition of forgetting things and low speed of processing information disengage themselves from society. Thus, as a result of it, their condition will become worst and they are being affected by different another type of problems (Mikkola and, 2017). Thus, supports the psychology of old age people in relation to varied features.

It is the theory which studies children in the context of the different ecological systems. In this context, it can be said that last stage of this theory has an impact on identified old age development features. It is called by the name of the chronosystem. This system consists of different factors such as a change in employment status and low money and these factors have a significant impact on the condition of an individual in old age (Vincent, Patterson and Wale, 2017). For instance, in old age, people go through with the condition like not having a job and due to this, they suffer from the condition of depression.


It can be stated that there are different type developments occurs in late adulthood. These all developments have a significant impact on the psychology of an individual. However, with an aim to manage this development, it is required that family member of old people should take significant action by giving them proper care and support.


Green, B., 2017. Gerontology and the construction of old age. Routledge.
Hulteen, R.M. and, 2018. Development of Foundational Movement Skills: A Conceptual Model for Physical Activity Across the Lifespan. Sports Medicine, pp.1-8.
Juhaszova, M. and, 2018. High Intrinsic Aerobic Endurance Capacity Preserves Cardiomyocyte Quality Control, Mitochondrial Fitness and Lifespan. Biophysical Journal, 114(3), p.662a.
Lenart, A. and Vaupel, J.W., 2017. Questionable evidence for a limit to human lifespan. Nature, 546(7660), p.E13.
Mikkola, T.M. and, 2017. Childhood growth predicts higher bone mass and greater bone area in early old age: findings among a subgroup of women from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Osteoporosis International, 28(9), pp.2717-2722.
Payne, V.G. and Isaacs, L.D., 2017. Human motor development: A lifespan approach. Routledge.
Seo, Y. and, 2018. Metabolic shift from glycogen to trehalose promotes lifespan and healthspan in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(12), pp.E2791-E2800.
Vincent, J.A., Patterson, G. and Wale, K., 2017. Politics and Old Age: Older Citizens and Political Processes in Britain: Older Citizens and Political Processes in Britain. Routledge.
Weadick, C.J. and Sommer, R.J., 2017. Hybrid crosses and the genetic basis of interspecific divergence in lifespan in Pristionchus nematodes. Journal of evolutionary biology, 30(3), pp.650-657.
Wilson, K.A. and, 2017. Genome-wide analysis reveals distinct genetic mechanisms of diet-dependent lifespan and healthspan in D. melanogaster. bioRxiv, p.153791.


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