a.Which receptor neuron is responsible for sending information from her finger to her peripheral nervous system?
b.Is this receptor neuron, an afferent or efferent neuron?
c.Explain where the information from the receptor neuron is sent and how does it result in Amy moving her finger away from the stove.
d.How many neurons are typically involved in this response? What are the names of these neurons?
e.Evolutionarily, why do you think the human body has this system in place?
f.What might happen if we did not have this response?
a.What is Early Onset Parkinson’s disease?
b.What specific cell type is affected in Parkinson’s disease?
c.What is dopamine? What effects does dopamine have on the body?
d.Explain the structure of a synapse and why Glen’s neurologist would prescribe him a dopamine agonist?
e.Glen has genetic testing performed and it is determined that he does carry an autosomal dominant mutation in the SNCA gene associated with Early Onset Parkinson’s disease. Glen has three children. Would you advise his children to have genetic testing performed to determine if they also carry the disease mutation? Why or why not?
a.What is MS?
b.Is MS a disease of the central or peripheral nervous system?
c.What is the main cell structure affected in MS?
d.How is the action potential of a neuron affected in MS?
e.The origins of MS are not clear. What do scientists hypothesize to be the causes of MS?
This receptor neuron, is an afferent neuron and not an efferent neuron, and is responsible for sending the external stimulus in to the internal environment in the form of electrical impulse.
The receptor neurons act as the pain sensory receptors in her fingers and pass the information to the central nervous system, through the neurotransmitters. Sensory neurons send information which is gathered by our organs like, skin etc. from the external environment, i.e. the surroundings. Upon receiving the information, the receptors or the sensory neurons send the signal to react to any particular stimuli, in here from a hot object, i.e. the stove. This is an involuntary response, and happens within a fraction of a second, and quite instantaneous.
The afferent and efferent neurons are the two types that are involved in the response, both work together and simultaneously. Afferent neurons are responsible carrying signal to the brain, and on the other hand, efferent neurons are responsible for getting back the response to the multiple parts of the body so involved, and this full process is voluntary or involuntary, depending on the event which is occurring (Burnstock, 2003).
The human being, have this system, in the body, since, this action of the afferent and efferent neurons, is the mechanism which supports the survival aspect of our body. When the receptors find something harmful, they will provide the signal, which will help to build the response, so that the body do not sustain harm.
In absence of these types of neurons, there will be grave dangers, since we will not be cautioned against any potential harm, and in so doing if not fatality, still there will be eminent harm from the external environment.
The specific cell type so affected in Parkinson’s disease is the nerve cells, which are lost in the process of the disease, due to the fact that the brain producing dopamine dies, due to the death of the neurons and the symptoms develop.
Dopamine is the contracted 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine, which is the organic chemical, and the synthesis of this amine group is made by the removal of carboxyl group, i.e. COOH. The synthesis takes place in both brain and also in kidneys in a human being.
Dopamine act as a neurotransmitter in the form of a chemical so released by neurons for sending the signal to other neurons (Janezic, 2013).
A synapse is a junction between the two corresponding nerve cells, but with a gap which diffuses the impulse through neurotransmitter. Axons are present in the nerve cell, which are attached to dendrites, and the synapse is located at the very tip of dendrite and send signals (P.R.Protachevicz, 2018).
On the other hand, an agonist drug help in eliciting the similar type of psychological response, if it can be combined with a receptor, so, if Glen’s neurologist prescribes him a dopamine agonist, then it would resemble a real dopamine, thus helping the production of dopamine and relieving the symptoms of the Parkinson’s disease.
Yes, it is important to have the children go through a genetic testing, for checking that they are the carrier of the disease mutation or not, since the gene, which Glen is carrying have an autosomal dominant mutation, and is normally associated with the Early Onset Parkinson’s disease, so it is advised that the children must go through a genetic testing, to be on the safer side.
Myelin is present both in the central nervous system and also in the peripheral nervous system, but, the central nervous system is only affected by multiple sclerosis or MS.
The neurons or the cells of the brain and the spina cord which does the transmission of information, to and fro, which then allows the brain to have full control on the body, is affected by Multiple sclerosis. There is a myelin sheath, a fatty layer, which acts as the protective layer for the neurons, and help in carrying the electric signals, and MS affects this area and cause demyelination, by gradual destruction (Adi Tabib, 2017).
The action potential is the release of charge between neuron and the surroundings. When the myelin sheath is affected by MS, it gets degenerated and the action potentials slows down and finally stop performing, due to the higher temperature speeding up the ion channels to open and close, and in so doing the action potential get shortened.
MS is quite unique and affects everyone in a total different way. But, scientists hypothesized the following four factors which can cause Multiple Sclerosis. They are as follows:
Immunologic or the immune mediated disease, which in other words mean that there is malfunctions of the immunity, which then affects the Central Nervous System, and in so doing the myelin sheath get affected.
Genetic is another factor, so if someone of the parent or the sibling have this disease of Multiple Sclerosis, then there is a chance that someone close related in the family will contract the disease.
Environmental causes related to deficiency of vitamin D. As it is known that sunlight can help to produce natural vitamin D, so both sunlight and Vitamin D are the essential elements, and the lack of Vitamin D is considered to be one of the factor causing MS.
Infections, are a possibility and may be potential cause of MS, is believed by some of the scientist. Infection caused by virus, causes demyelination, and this can be a possible trigger for MS. Human Herpes, Measles are the common virus which can cause MS, if the demyelination is random and faster. (Claudia Cristina Ferreira Vasconcelos, 2016)
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