different case studies response

 

Need to respond to three following case studies-
1.Amy is cooking dinner for her family. She moves to pull a pot off the stove and accidently touches the burner. She reflexively pulls her finger away from the stove and immediately feels the pain.
a.Which receptor neuron is responsible for sending information from her finger to her peripheral nervous system?
b.Is this receptor neuron, an afferent or efferent neuron?
c.Explain where the information from the receptor neuron is sent and how does it result in Amy moving her finger away from the stove.
d.How many neurons are typically involved in this response? What are the names of these neurons?
e.Evolutionarily, why do you think the human body has this system in place?
f.What might happen if we did not have this response?
 
2.Glen, who is 45 years old, begins to notice that his hands shake (tremors) when he is performing everyday tasks such as signing his signature. His family members have noticed that he also has muffled speech and tends to shuffle when he walks. He is diagnosed with Early Onset Parkinson’s disease.
a.What is Early Onset Parkinson’s disease?
b.What specific cell type is affected in Parkinson’s disease?
c.What is dopamine? What effects does dopamine have on the body?
d.Explain the structure of a synapse and why Glen’s neurologist would prescribe him a dopamine agonist?
e.Glen has genetic testing performed and it is determined that he does carry an autosomal dominant mutation in the SNCA gene associated with Early Onset Parkinson’s disease. Glen has three children. Would you advise his children to have genetic testing performed to determine if they also carry the disease mutation? Why or why not?
 
3.Patricia, who is 37 years old, discusses with her physician recent symptoms that she has experienced including blurred vision, numbness in her fingers and face, dizziness, fatigue and weakness. The physician performs multiple neurological tests and she is diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS).
a.What is MS?
b.Is MS a disease of the central or peripheral nervous system?
c.What is the main cell structure affected in MS?
d.How is the action potential of a neuron affected in MS?
e.The origins of MS are not clear. What do scientists hypothesize to be the causes of MS?

 

INTRODUCTION

Neurology is that branch of science which relies on the study of neuroscience, and is basically the detailed study of the nervous system. There is a thin line of distinction between neurology and psychiatry, where the neurologist treats the disorders of nervous system, a psychiatrist treats the mental disorder (World Health Organization). 

CASE STUDIES

AMY

The receptor neuron which is responsible for sending information from her finger to her peripheral nervous system is the Sensory Neuron which converts the external stimulus from the outside environment to the electrical impulses within the body. This neuron is responsible for carrying the sensory information to the Central Nervous System from the Peripheral System, i.e. the place where it is located. So, in this instance, Amy’s finger is sending information through Sensory Neuron (K.B. Døving, 2016).
This receptor neuron, is an afferent neuron and not an efferent neuron, and is responsible for sending the external stimulus in to the internal environment in the form of electrical impulse. 
The receptor neurons act as the pain sensory receptors in her fingers and pass the information to the central nervous system, through the neurotransmitters. Sensory neurons send information which is gathered by our organs like, skin etc. from the external environment, i.e. the surroundings. Upon receiving the information, the receptors or the sensory neurons send the signal to react to any particular stimuli, in here from a hot object, i.e. the stove. This is an involuntary response, and happens within a fraction of a second, and quite instantaneous.
The afferent and efferent neurons are the two types that are involved in the response, both work together and simultaneously. Afferent neurons are responsible carrying signal to the brain, and on the other hand, efferent neurons are responsible for getting back the response to the multiple parts of the body so involved, and this full process is voluntary or involuntary, depending on the event which is occurring (Burnstock, 2003).
The human being, have this system, in the body, since, this action of the afferent and efferent neurons, is the mechanism which supports the survival aspect of our body. When the receptors find something harmful, they will provide the signal, which will help to build the response, so that the body do not sustain harm.
In absence of these types of neurons, there will be grave dangers, since we will not be cautioned against any potential harm, and in so doing if not fatality, still there will be eminent harm from the external environment. 

GLEN

Parkinson’s disease when diagnosed in an age range of 21- 50 years, it is referred as early onset Parkinson’s disease. This is a progressive disease and is caused by production of dopamine in brain, due to loss of cells (Benjamin H.M.Hunn, 2015).
The specific cell type so affected in Parkinson’s disease is the nerve cells, which are lost in the process of the disease, due to the fact that the brain producing dopamine dies, due to the death of the neurons and the symptoms develop.
Dopamine is the contracted 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine, which is the organic chemical, and the synthesis of this amine group is made by the removal of carboxyl group, i.e. COOH. The synthesis takes place in both brain and also in kidneys in a human being. 
Dopamine act as a neurotransmitter in the form of a chemical so released by neurons for sending the signal to other neurons (Janezic, 2013).
A synapse is a junction between the two corresponding nerve cells, but with a gap which diffuses the impulse through neurotransmitter. Axons are present in the nerve cell, which are attached to dendrites, and the synapse is located at the very tip of dendrite and send signals (P.R.Protachevicz, 2018). 
On the other hand, an agonist drug help in eliciting the similar type of psychological response, if it can be combined with a receptor, so, if Glen’s neurologist prescribes him a dopamine agonist, then it would resemble a real dopamine, thus helping the production of dopamine and relieving the symptoms of the Parkinson’s disease. 
Yes, it is important to have the children go through a genetic testing, for checking that they are the carrier of the disease mutation or not, since the gene, which Glen is carrying have an autosomal dominant mutation, and is normally associated with the Early Onset Parkinson’s disease, so it is advised that the children must go through a genetic testing, to be on the safer side. 

PATRICIA

Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a long-lasting chronic disease which affect the brain, spinal cord, and also the optic nerves, or in other words, the disease effects the central nervous system.  Symptoms, include numbness in limbs and also at times can also involve paralysis or loss of vision (Hernan Nicolas Lemus, 2018). 
Myelin is present both in the central nervous system and also in the peripheral nervous system, but, the central nervous system is only affected by multiple sclerosis or MS. 
The neurons or the cells of the brain and the spina cord which does the transmission of information, to and fro, which then allows the brain to have full control on the body, is affected by Multiple sclerosis. There is a myelin sheath, a fatty layer, which acts as the protective layer for the neurons, and help in carrying the electric signals, and MS affects this area and cause demyelination, by gradual destruction (Adi Tabib, 2017).
The action potential is the release of charge between neuron and the surroundings. When the myelin sheath is affected by MS, it gets degenerated and the action potentials slows down and finally stop performing, due to the higher temperature speeding up the ion channels to open and close, and in so doing the action potential get shortened.
MS is quite unique and affects everyone in a total different way. But, scientists hypothesized the following four factors which can cause Multiple Sclerosis. They are as follows:
Immunologic or the immune mediated disease, which in other words mean that there is malfunctions of the immunity, which then affects the Central Nervous System, and in so doing the myelin sheath get affected. 
Genetic is another factor, so if someone of the parent or the sibling have this disease of Multiple Sclerosis, then there is a chance that someone close related in the family will contract the disease.
Environmental causes related to deficiency of vitamin D. As it is known that sunlight can help to produce natural vitamin D, so both sunlight and Vitamin D are the essential elements, and the lack of Vitamin D is considered to be one of the factor causing MS.
Infections, are a possibility and may be potential cause of MS, is believed by some of the scientist. Infection caused by virus, causes demyelination, and this can be a possible trigger for MS. Human Herpes, Measles are the common virus which can cause MS, if the demyelination is random and faster.  (Claudia Cristina Ferreira Vasconcelos, 2016)

CONCLUSION

Neurology is that branch of medicine which studies the disorders in the nervous system, and suggests procedures and treatments for diagnosing any disorder for the conditions of the disease and mostly relates to the central and the peripheral part of the nervous system.

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References

Adi Tabib, N. K. (2017). Demyelination, strokes, and eculizumab: Lessons from the congenital CD59 gene mutations. Molecular Immunology, 69-72.
Benjamin H.M.Hunn, S. J.-G.-M. (2015). Impaired intracellular trafficking defines early Parkinson's disease. Trend in NeuroScience, 178-188.
Burnstock, G. (2003). Purinergic Receptors in the Nervous System. Current Topics in Membranes, 307-368.
Claudia Cristina Ferreira Vasconcelos, J. C. (2016). Prognostic factors associated with long-term disability and secondary progression in patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, 27-34.
Hernan Nicolas Lemus, A. E. (2018). Multiple Sclerosis: Mechanisms of Disease and Strategies for Myelin and Axonal Repair. Neurologic Clinics, 1-11.
Janezic, S. T. (2013). Deficits in dopaminergic transmission precede neuron loss and dysfunction in a new Parkinson model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (pp. E4016-E4025). Oxford United Kingdom: University of Oxford.
K.B. Døving. (2016). Smell: Vertebrates- Sensory Neuron. Reference Module in Life Sciences- Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior, 2007-2015.
P.R.Protachevicz, F. K. (2018). How synapses can enhance sensibility of a neural network. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 1045-1052.
World Health Organization. (n.d.). What are neurological disorders? Retrieved from http://www.who.int/features/qa/55/en/

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