You need to identify the areas (DIABETES) in which you will conduct your research and write a report on the problems, issues, or hypothesis that you will be exploring.
1. The Research Question/Statement:
Diabetes is now becoming one of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Currently, it is expected that nearly about 415 million patients in the world are suffering from diabetes (American Diabetes Association.2015). However, diabetes is of various types including the type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. Apparently, all the three types of diabetes seem different in nature, have different symptoms and affect the patient’s body in different ways (Nolan et al.2015). However, sometimes, type 1 and type 2 diabetes show a strong connection with the gestational diabetes. In other words, in some cases, the patients tend a have a higher risk to develop the type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Although there are many researches on the nature, symptom and ways to control the type 1 and type 2 diabetes, the researches does not shed light on the factors which trigger the chances of developing type 1 or 2 diabetes and how the risk factors can be controlled. Clearly, there is a need of research to reveal the relation between gestational diabetes and the other two types of diabetes. The research will also identify what are the factors which enhance the chances of developing both types of diabetes after being affected due to gestational diabetes.
What is the connection between type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes and what are the factors that trigger chances of developing other two types of diabetes after occurrence of gestational diabetes?
2. Literature Review
The type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes are three types of diabetes mellitus which affects the ability of body to collect energy from the food (American Diabetes Association.,2015). In the human body, the consumed food is converted into glucose which produces energy. Insulin is a hormone that helps the human body to convert glucose into the energy. In case of diabetes mellitus, the body either becomes unable to produce insulin or produces the insulin but cannot use it for converting the glucose into energy (Chow et al.2014). In some cases, the patient is found to have a combination of both the issues.
While the other two types of diabetes stay for longer period or for the lifelong period, the gestational diabetes stays for temporary period. Such diabetes usually occur at the time of pregnancy, in case, the patient’s body cannot fulfill the additional needs of human body. Although the gestational diabetes does not stay after the pregnancy period, it is observed that some patients has a tendency to develop the type 2 and type 1 diabetes after getting affected by the gestational diabetes. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes becomes 60% higher among those women who have developed gestational diabetes in their pregnancy (De Felice & Ferreira, 2014). Although the rate of such incidents is quite lower, still owing to the prevalence of the diseases, it is necessary to identify how all these three types of diabetes are interrelated.
Type 1 Diabetes comes with a number of symptoms including the fatigue, nausea, vomiting, excessive thirst, sweating, and increase in the urination frequency (Nolan et al.2015). Often the symptoms include blurred vision, headache and weight loss. Similarly, the type 2 diabetes also can be identified from the symptoms such as excessive thirst, slower wound healing rate, increase or decrease in weight and blurred vision (Gonzalez et al.2015). Similar to other two types of diabetes, the gestational diabetes also shows the symptoms like increased thirst, hunger, urination and yeast infection (Nolan et al.2015).
Diabetes can be diagnosed using several tests. HBA1c is an effective test as it reveals the level of glucose in blood over a period. The fasting blood sugar test is another test that can be done after fasting overnight. After fasting for the whole night, the level of blood sugar is measured and the reading below 100 mg/dL is considered normal (Mayoclinic.org, 2018). The random blood test can be done at any time. In this case, a blood sugar level of 200 mg/dL is considered as diabetes (Mayoclinic.org, 2018).
3.Methodology and Data Collection
The current research is conducted in the deductive way. The deductive researches help the researcher to assess the existing literature and mitigate the gaps using further research (Flick, 2015). Both primary and secondary data will be used in the research. The secondary data will be collected using the literature review. However, the primary data will be collected by conducting survey among the patients. The research focuses on collecting the data on lifestyle and other medical histories of the patients. The patients are provided with questionnaire on the topics and the responses from them are collected. The research is conducted on basis of the quantitative data collected from the survey.
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4. Ethics Approval
Adhering to the professional, legal and social obligations is important to carry out a research ethically (Taylor et al.2015). In the current research also is conducted after incorporation of the professional, legal and social ethical norms. As in the current research, personal data on the patients are collected, it is necessary to ensure that the respondents are being informed about purpose of the research in advance before they are taking part in the survey. Protecting sensitive data about the respondents is one of the topmost ethical responsibilities of the researcher. So, in this case also, the researcher ensures that the data on the respondents are protected.
5. Research Schedule
Table 1: Schedule of the report
Source: prepared by the researcher
The funding will be required to conduct the survey.
6. Validation, Reliability and Evaluation
The research data will be collected from several group of patients to check whether there is any parity between the findings. The data is analyzed using the statistical tools. Use of statistical tools enhances accuracy of the findings (Flick, 2015). Use of the tools can enhance validity of the findings of the current research also.
7. Barriers/variables to Research
The patients may not show interest to share their personal data. In this case, purpose of the research is demonstrated to the patients so that they become able to understand its effectiveness.
8. Sharing of research finding:
The research findings can be used for creating the awareness among the patients and the healthcare professionals to reduce the risk of type 1 and type 2 diabetes after being affected by gestational diabetes. The findings are published in the journals so that anyone can access those. The findings are effective for the nursing professionals as using the findings they can make the patients aware of the healthy lifestyle.
American Diabetes Association. (2015). 2. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes care, 38(Supplement 1), S8-S16.
American Diabetes Association. (2015). Standards of medical care in diabetes—2015 abridged for primary care providers. Clinical diabetes: a publication of the American Diabetes Association, 33(2), 97.
Chow, E., Bernjak, A., Williams, S., Fawdry, R. A., Hibbert, S., Freeman, J., ... & Heller, S. R. (2014). Risk of cardiac arrhythmias during hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk. Diabetes, 63(5), 1738-1747.
De Felice, F. G., & Ferreira, S. T. (2014). Inflammation, defective insulin signaling, and mitochondrial dysfunction as common molecular denominators connecting type 2 diabetes to Alzheimer disease. Diabetes, 63(7), 2262-2272.
Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project. Sage.
Gonzalez, J. S., Shreck, E., Psaros, C., & Safren, S. A. (2015). Distress and type 2 diabetes-treatment adherence: A mediating role for perceived control. Health psychology, 34(5), 505.
Mayoclinic.org (2018). Diabetes - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic. [online] Mayoclinic.org. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/diagnosis-treatment/drc-20371451 [Accessed 16 Apr. 2018].
Nolan, C. J., Ruderman, N. B., Kahn, S. E., Pedersen, O., & Prentki, M. (2015). Insulin resistance as a physiological defense against metabolic stress: implications for the management of subsets of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 64(3), 673-686.
Taylor, S. J., Bogdan, R., & DeVault, M. (2015). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley & Sons.