Application of Theories of Ageing and Physiology

Some personal care assistants in a residential aged care facility demonstrated inappropriate behaviour towards the residents. Their unprofessional behaviours
included, but were not limited to, the following:
· Force feeding residents
· Neglecting residents’ needs and requests on the assumption that ‘they will forget it
  soon’
· Arguing with residents when there was a delay in receiving a response from them
  to their (PCAs)questions
· Being impatient and forcing them to mobilise faster
· Performing tasks without seeking consent
· Making statements such as ‘older people are boring’ and ‘older people are so
  dramatic’.
The residential aged care workforce must possess an understanding of the application of the theories of ageing and physiology of the ageing process as it is
related to disease processes and resident behaviours.
Conduct a literature review and submit a writing on this topic, linking it with appropriate examples from the case scenario provided above.

Introduction

The inappropriate behavior of the personal care assistants at the residential aged care facility with respect to the residents is critical (Bernoth, M. et al., 2014, pp. 458). This unprofessional behavior encompasses the impatience exhibited by the personal care assistants in trying to mobilize the patients quickly and treating them in an unfair manner. 
The use of statements for the old, trying to be biased about them with the inclusion of a perception linking older people to being boring and dramatic tends to be demonstrated.  The personal care assistants also involve in the performance of tasks that are done without seeking the consent of the aged in the care facility (Bernoth, M. et al., 2014, pp. 458; Zella, S., 2017, pp. 412; Martinez, W. et al., 2015, pp. 17). With the situations that present a sorry state of conditions prevalent while trying to argue with the patients in cases while there is a delay pertaining to the response received from them with respect to the PCA questions and neglecting the patients represents the unprofessional behavior. 
The behavior of the personal care assistants does extend to the neglect of the residents with respect to the needs and forcing to feed the residents in the aged care facility is significant (Willoughby, M. et al., 2017, pp. 54; Bernoth, M. et al., 2014, pp. 459; Zella, S., 2017, pp. 412; Martinez, W. et al., 2015, pp. 15). With the lack of appropriate behavior exhibited, it is crucial that the literature review needs to well encompass the various theories present and the significance of such theories. The various theories related to ageing – social exchange, wear and tear activity, disengagement, psychosocial and biological is significant to note. The physiology of the process of ageing with the manner well relates to the processes including sensory function, neurological function, cardiac, respiratory muscolosketal, genitourinary and endocrine function.

Literature Review

The inappropriate behavior of the personal care assistants at the facility brings out the neglect of the residents and the various actions taken by them in order to discriminate the elderly (Willoughby, M. et al., 2017, pp. 54; Bernoth, M. et al., 2014, pp. 459; Zella, S., 2017, pp. 412; Martinez, W. et al., 2015, pp. 15). The social exchange theory in ageing is associated with the change and the pertaining stability that pertains to the individuals while across their lifespan. 
The theory does propose that the interaction which takes place between individuals does present a resultant exchange process. The modern biological theory of wear and tear in ageing is closely associated with the cells of human body and the manner they wear off due to the resultant ageing process (Jones, O.R. et al., 2017 pp. 44; Aldwin, C.M. et al., 2017, pp. 34; Lipsky, M.S. and King, M., 2015, pp. 89). The parts of the body do wear off alike the components that are of the aging car and slowly the wear and tear increases likewise it takes place to the components of the car. 
The manner in which the residents in the age care residential center are being treated, the theory of wear and tear closely associates to their condition. The need for care to take place in accordance is well expected so that the condition of the elderly does not deteriorate at the fast pace with the inattentive approach exhibited from the care expected and needed at their tender age (Jones, O.R. et al., 2017 pp. 44; Aldwin, C.M. et al., 2017, pp. 34; Lipsky, M.S. and King, M., 2015, pp. 90). The activity theory with respect to ageing proposes that the health of older people can be improvised with them being in a happy state only while there is greater social interactions and the active life they can maintain as part of their routine. The theory was proposed by Robert Havighurst and this was done by him in response to the theory linked to disengagement in aging. 
The functional perspective in aging can be well monitored and various activities taken up at the residential care center that well demonstrate a greater participation of the elderly while bringing out the enhanced communication with the rest of the residents at the facility. The disengagement theory linked to ageing is significant to note. The aging theory clearly brings out the withdrawal or disengagement from the society as the aging progresses (Jones, O.R. et al., 2017 pp. 44; Aldwin, C.M. et al., 2017, pp. 34; Lipsky, M.S. and King, M., 2015, pp. 89). The inevitable phenomenon that can be witnessed as part of the decrease in interaction of the elderly tries to be well associated with the theory. 
It is indeed natural process and the acceptability well considered as part of the withdrawal syndrome that takes place for the ageing as part of our society. The withdrawal can also take place as part of the mutual disengagement in the elderly. It is significant that the ageing process takes a disengagement and that needs to be well accepted and considered by people that surround the elderly. By being unresponsive to the behavior and unethical practices at the residential care centers demeans the state of affairs present at such age care centers.

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The psychosocial theory in ageing along with the biological theory signifying the biological timetable gets regulated as part of the gene expression in human bodies (Newman, B.M. and Newman, P.R., 2017, pp. 74). The assault taking place due to the environment causes a damage that can be ascertained well with the regulation to the change in the response to repair along with the defense. The physiology of the process of ageing takes us to relate the disease process with respect to the crucial functions too. The sensory function with response to the stimuli along with the transmission of data being brought to the brain tends to be crucial. 
The functions associated with the sensory system along with the cardiac function as brought up as part of the developmental biologists present the inputs that the anatomy of the parts of the body and how well is it synchronized to the entire process of ageing. The physiological changes that do tend to occur with the ageing process and the impact felt on the neurological functions along with the changes taking place in the kidney and their functionality too are significant. With the various changes that take place as part of the ageing process and the physiology as that is associated with the skin integrity and endocrine functionality too is impacted to a greater extent. There needs to be due considerations of these changes taking place as part of the ageing process and the care ascertained to the ageing.

Conclusion

The unprofessional behavior considering the impatience that is exhibited by the personal care assistants in trying to mobilize the patients in a quick manner while unfairly treating them at the residential aged care facility is a matter of grave concern. The personal care assistants do tend to involve in the performance of tasks which are without the consent of the elderly. The situation prevalent at the residential care centers is crucial. The behavior of the personal care assistants does extend to the neglect of the residents with respect to the needs and forcing to feed the residents in the aged care facility is significant.
The various theories encompassing the social exchange, wear and tear activity, disengagement, psychosocial and biological are associated to the ageing process. The consideration of these theories as part of the study aids in relating them to the day to day living and the manner in which aged should be treated. The treatment at the residential care facility being impacted without the crucial consideration is unfair. 
The physiology of the process of ageing does coordinate well with the various processes linking to the impact ascertained in the sensory function, neurological function, cardiac, respiratory muscolosketal, genitourinary and endocrine function. The theories in ageing too need to be well taken into account with the association to the needed change in terms of delivery of care by the personal assistants at the residential care facility for the aged. 

References

Aldwin, C.M., Igarashi, H., Gilmer, D.F. and Levenson, M.R., 2017. Health, illness, and optimal aging: Biological and psychosocial perspectives. Springer Publishing Company. 
Bernoth, M., Dietsch, E., Burmeister, O.K. and Schwartz, M., 2014. Information management in aged care: cases of confidentiality and elder abuse. Journal of business ethics, 122(3), pp.453-460. 
Jones, O.R., Scheuerlein, A., Salguero-Gómez, R., Camarda, C.G., Schaible, R., Casper, B.B., Dahlgren, J.P., Ehrlén, J., García, M.B., Menges, E.S. and Quintana-Ascencio, P.F., 2014. Diversity of ageing across the tree of life. Nature, 505(7482), p.169.
Lipsky, M.S. and King, M., 2015. Biological theories of aging. Disease-a-Month, 61(11), pp.460-466.
Martinez, W., Etchegaray, J.M., Thomas, E.J., Hickson, G.B., Lehmann, L.S., Schleyer, A.M., Best, J.A., Shelburne, J.T., May, N.B. and Bell, S.K., 2015. 'Speaking Up'About Patient Safety Concerns and Unprofessional Behaviour Among Residents. 
Newman, B.M. and Newman, P.R., 2017. Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning.
Willoughby, M., Ibrahim, J.E., Ferrah, N. and Bugeja, L., 2017. Optimising residential respite care in nursing homes: Current problems and solutions for a better future. International journal of older people nursing.
Zella, S., 2017. Book Review-Handbook of Theories of Ageing (Third Edited Edition) by Vern L. Bengtson and Richard A. Settersten. Journal of Population Ageing, 10(3), pp.311-314.

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