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Question .Produce a revision aid, which explains the structure and function of the major components of the blood must include details of the processes involved in the formation and maturation of various blood components


Answer .The components of blood as follows
o    Plasma consists of water, glucose, fat, protein, and salts. Plasma involves in transportation of cells, waste items, antibodies, proteins, hormones and proteins. 
o    Red Blood Cells: Biconcave circle like structures contains a protein, hemoglobin. The cells convey oxygen from the lungs to body and carbon dioxide from body to lungs (Basu & Kulkarni, 2014).
o    White Blood Cells (leukocytes): WBC includes esonophils, basophils, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocytes. The significant elements of the WBC are to shield the body from diseases and outside materials and offering immunity
o    Platelets:  Support in clotting of blood in case of injuries. 
o    Formation and development of platelets: Erythropoiesis (process of RBC development) happens in myeloid tissue of red bone marrow of sternum, ribs, pelvis, and proximal appendage bones. Hemocytoblasts of bone marrow produces myeloid stem cells, which thus partition to deliver RBC and some of WBC. Proerythrobloasts by means of differing stages combine hemoglobin (normoblast) and after that enters as reticulocyte and inevitably, development can happens in 24 h to RBC. The supplements, amino acids, iron and vitamins (B6, B12, folic acid) are required for DNA replication (mitosis) and protein combination

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Question .Write a detailed analysis on the mechanism of haemostosis and the role of platelets in this process


Answer. Hemostasis is an arrangement of very much controlled procedures intended to quickly and particularly shape coagulation at locales of vascular damage, for example, injury. Taking after endothelial harm, the exceptionally thrombogenic extracellular grid binds platelets and prompts their initiation. von Willebrand (vWF) component is a crucial cofactor for platelet tying. Platelets experience a shape change and discharge secretary granules (Ghoshal, & Bhattacharyya, 2014). This volunteers different platelets, and in fraction of minutes, a haemostatic plug shapes. Erythrocytes and leukocytes would also trap in haemostatic plugs. While circulating, platelets are smooth cells with various integrins-layer including bound glycoprotein receptors on the cell surface. They likewise contain two sorts of granules brimming with clump shaping proteins. Alpha granules have P-selectins on their films and contain fibrinogen, fibronectin, factor V and VIII, platelet element 4, platelet-determined development element, and TGF-β. Thick, or δ granules, contain adenine nucleotides ADP and ATP, ionized calcium, histamine, serotonin and epinephrine. Platelet contact with ECM segments, for example, collagen, proteoglycans, fibronectin, and other attachment glycoprotein. These components prompt three general responses including adhesion, and shape change, discharge, and accumulation. Platelet attachment is to a great extent intervened by collaborations with vWF, going about as an extension, together with thickening components, between layer bound glycoprotein 1b and collagen. Discharge of both granule sorts happens not long after attachment, intervened by a phosphorylation course. ADP is a strong go between of platelet conglomeration. Phospholipids are likewise communicated at the cell surface, giving basic nucleation destinations to the inherent clotting process. Platelet conglomeration is intervened by platelet arrival of ADP and thromboxane A2 (TxA2). This sets up an autocatalytic response whereby the collection augments to make a haemostatic plug. Enactment of the coagulation process frees thrombin, which changes over fibrinogen into fibrin in and around the platelet plug, establishing things set up. Noncleaved fibrinogen can likewise bring about platelet total by means of cell surface GpIIb-IIIa. Endothelial prostacyclin (PGI2) and nitric oxide (NO) inhibit platelet aggregation. PGI2 functions by increasing levels of platelet cAMP, inhibiting activation and aggregation. 
Role of plates in haemostasis: Platelets produce substances, which are secures the hemostasis. Platelets produce substances, which are secure the hemostasis. Platelets produces a total of 12 platelets factors which include, proaccelerin, factor-2 (accelerates development of the fibrinogen in fibrin); thromboplastin; antiheparinic factor; factor-5 (promote the aggregation of platelets); thrompostenin; antifibrinolizin; serotonin; fibrin stabilizing factor; factor-10 (activate profibrinolisin); inhibitor of thromboplastin and antilighting factor (De Gaetano, 2001). The platelets major role is to participate in clotting process by activating diverse factors and preventing the hemorrhage. A generalized schematic flow of events, which took place in clotting, is shown in Fig-1

Fig-1: Schematic diagram showing the process of haemostasis


Question .Produce a leaflet for patients which explains why people can be referred to as universal donors or universal recipients in relation to the A, B,O blood grouping system


Answer .The ABO framework comprises of A, B, AB, and O blood classifications. Individuals with type A have antibodies in the blood against type B. Individuals with type B have antibodies in the blood against type A. Individuals with AB have no anti-A or anti-B antibodies. Individuals with type ‘O’ have both anti-A and anti-B antibodies. Individuals with sort ‘AB’ blood are called universal receptors as they can get any of the ABO types. Individuals with type O blood are called universal donors in light of the fact that their blood can be given to individuals with any of the ABO type (Dean, 2005). Bungles with the ABO and Rh blood classifications are in charge of the most serious, sometimes life-threatening, transfusion reactions. 


BASU, D and KULKARNI, R (2014) Overview of blood components and their preparation.  Indian Journal of Anaesthesia, 58(5), 529–537. 
DE GAETANO, G (2001) Historical overview of the role of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis.Haematologica. 86(4) p. 349-56
DEAN, L (2005) Blood groups and red cell antigens. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information. The ABO blood group. Available from:
GHOSHAL, K and BHATTACHARYYA, M (2014) Overview of platelet physiology: Its hemostatic and nonhemostatic role in disease pathogenesis. The Scientific World Journal,  781857. 

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